You have found the companion information for Fossils and the Flood: Exploring Lost Worlds with Science and Scripture. This web page provides extensive notes and references to support the material in the book. It is intended to help parents, teachers and interested scholars who want to explore the biblical and scientific evidence undergirding the statements made in the book. However, please note that these references are not exhaustive, and are intended only to point a way into the literature.
Many standard evolutionary texts were consulted while preparing this book. While we do not accept evolutionary theory or the long ages of conventional earth history, these texts provided a great deal of helpful information about the fossil organisms we described or depicted. These sources included Hamilton et al. (1974), Natural History Museum (1975a, 1975b, 1983), Moody (1979), Benton (1990, 1991, 1993, 2015), Gould (1993), Norman (1994), Clarkson (1998), Taylor and Lewis (2005), Palmer (2009), and Stringer and Andrews (2011). Other references specific to each section follow and include both evolutionary and creationist sources.
1. THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE EARTH
What does the Bible tell us? (page 3)
Chapter 3 (“The history of baramins”) in Wood and Murray (2003) provides a helpful discussion of the early history of the world according to the Bible, and especially its implications for our understanding of the history of living things.
What can we learn from scientific research? (pages 4-5)
Wise and Allison (2008) offer a brief biblical rationale for why and how Christians should do science. Brand (2006) sets out a more detailed biblical perspective on the philosophy of science, advocating an approach to the study of the natural world that incorporates insights from both science and the Bible. Other thought-provoking papers by the same author include Brand (1996, 2015a, 2015b). Wood’s (2016d) textbook, Introduction to Science, provides a useful creationist perspective on many relevant issues.
Sheppard (2009) gives an interesting report of a meeting of the Creation Biology Society (formerly the Creation Biology Study Group), a community of scientists and biblical scholars working with the common goal of understanding the history of life from a creationist perspective.
The quotation in the inset box by Wilson is from Wieland (2008) and the quotation by Austin is from Walker (2010). The McLain quotation is from personal correspondence and used with permission.
Putting the puzzle pieces together (page 5)
Some helpful resources on how the biblical and scientific evidence can be integrated into a coherent creationist model include Wise (2002), Wise and Richardson (2004), and Garner (2009a).
2. THE OLD WORLD
Creation week (pages 8-9)
Stambaugh (1991a) and Hasel (1994) set out the biblical case for creation days of ordinary length, each about 24 hours long. Fouts’ (2015) book, Right from the Start!, is also recommended.
How long ago did Creation take place? (pages 10-13)
Mortenson (2015) provides a short summary of the biblical case for a young world. The theological importance of getting the chronology right is addressed by Lloyd (2009, 2017).
Hasel (1980), Niessen (1982), Sarfati (2003), and Ham and Pierce (2006) defend a straightforward reading of the biblical genealogies, without missing generations, thus constraining the date of Adam’s creation to about 6,000 years ago.
The question of whether we should adopt the numbers in the Masoretic or the Septuagint text is hotly debated among creationists. For a flavor of some recent discussions see Cosner and Carter (2015), Sexton and Smith (2016), Smith (2017, 2018a, 2018b), and Tomkins et al. (2019).
The series of articles by Snelling (2009d, 2009e, 2010a) provides a helpful introduction to radiometric dating, its faulty assumptions and unreliable results, as well as the evidence for accelerated radioactive decay in the earth’s past. A major creationist research initiative on radiometric dating resulted in three books (Vardiman et al. 2000; Vardiman et al. 2005; DeYoung 2005) and a host of technical papers. Snelling (2010c, 2011a, 2011b) provides a creationist perspective on the carbon-14 dating method.
Young world evidences are discussed in a number of papers, including comet lifetimes (Worraker 2004; Faulkner 2019, pp.270-272), saltiness of the ocean (Austin and Humphreys 1990), sediment build-up on the seafloor (Roth 1986), and the erosion of the continents (Roth 1986).
The created world I. Continents and oceans (page 14)
Snelling (2014a) discusses the evidence that there was a pre-Flood supercontinent similar to Rodinia, and that it broke apart during the Flood.
The created world II. Living things (pages 15-17)
The biome concept is introduced by Wise (2011), and illustrated with modern grasslands. Some specific examples of pre-Flood biomes are described in Wise (2002, pp.170-176) and Wood and Murray (2003, pp.188-191).
Matthews (2014) shows how a trip to a natural history museum reveals the biomes that existed before the Flood and details of the recovery of the world after the Flood.
In Fossils and the Flood we did not focus on the consequences of Adam’s fall for living things. However, we can infer from Scripture that several things came about, directly or indirectly, as a consequence of Adam’s fall, including the introduction of physical death for people and animals, carnivory, sickness and disease, the struggle for survival, and thorns and thistles. These implications of the Fall are discussed further in Garner (2009a, pp.157-160). See also Stambaugh (1991b) and Lloyd (2009).
Wise (1992b) discusses the seasonality of pre-Flood climates evidenced by fossil tree rings.
The floating forest (pages 18-21)
Wise (2003b, 2008c) and Austin and Sanders (2018) describe the development of the floating forest model. The model in its current form was founded partly on insights from Austin (1979), concerning the formation of the No. 12 coal bed in western Kentucky, and from Scheven (1981, 1984, 1990a, 1990b, 1990c; see also Wieland 1995), concerning the anatomical evidence that fossil lycopsids were designed to grow on water. Sanders and Austin (2018) published additional paleobotany data supporting the floating forest model.
Glasgow’s famous Fossil Grove is described in Gunning (1995). Clarey and Tomkins (2016) proposed that Fossil Grove represents a pre-Flood terrestrial forest, preserved on the land surface where it was growing before the Flood. However, Wise (2018) made a convincing argument from an on-site investigation that the trees were transported before burial, consistent with the floating forest model, and not preserved where they had originally grown.
Salty, hot-water reefs (pages 22-23)
Wise (2003a) proposed that the pre-Flood continental shelf housed a spectrum of marine ecosystems from the margin landward: (a) a shallow-water, hydrothermal, stromatolite reef biome; (b) a deep-water, sandy biome with Ediacaran animals; (c) a carbonate biome populated with the organisms which generated the small shelly fossils; and (d) a non-carbonate muddy biome populated by the Paleozoic fauna.
The diorama is based on the fossil stromatolites of the Kwagunt Formation of Grand Canyon, described by Wise and Snelling (2005), which were probably part of the pre-Flood stromatolite reef biome.
Living on the marine shelf I. The Ediacarans (pages 24-25)
See Wise (2003a). Doran (2015) describes the strange, soft-bodied animals known as Ediacarans and interprets them from a creationist perspective.
The diorama is based on data from several Ediacaran localities, including the Charnwood Forest (England), the Flinders Range (Australia), and Mistaken Point (Newfoundland) (Sprigg 1947; Ford 1958; Glaessner 1958; Glaessner and Daily 1959; Glaessner and Wade 1966; LaFlamme et al. 2004; Misra 2010).
Living on the marine shelf II. Small shelly creatures (pages 26-27)
See Wise (2003a).
The diorama is based on data from Zhuravleva (1970), Matthews and Missarzhevsky (1975), Demidenko (2006), and Semikhatov (2008).
The discovery of fossil animals such as Halkieria and Microdictyon, with multiple plates on their bodies, suggests that at least some of the “small shells” actually represent armor-like plates that belonged in life to larger animals (Haas 1981; Bengtson 1992).
Living on the marine shelf III. The Atdabanian animals (pages 28-29)
See Wise (2003a).
The diorama is based mostly on animals from the Chengjiang fossil beds of southern China (Hou et al. 2004). The exceptions are Helicoplacus, whose fossils are found in roughly coeval sediments in the White-Inyo Mountains of California (Durham and Caster 1963), and the trilobite, Olenellus, which makes its first appearance at the boundary between the Atdabanian and the next Cambrian stage (Yuan et al. 2011).
Extensive inland seas: the marine Paleozoic (pages 30-31)
Evolutionary paleontologist Jack Sepkoski (1981, 1990) resolved the Phanerozoic part of the fossil record (i.e., everything from the Cambrian onwards) into three distinct “faunas”: the Cambrian, Paleozoic and Modern.
The Paleozoic fauna probably represents the inhabitants of an extensive shallow sea that covered much of the pre-Flood supercontinent. The Cincinnatian fossil beds of Ohio were chosen to represent this extensive biome in our diorama. Snelling (2011c) describes the testimony these fossil beds give to Noah’s Flood.
The diorama is based on data from Dalvé (1948), Elias (1983), Davis (1985), and Frey (1995).
The fringes of the land: coastal dunes and forests (pages 32-33)
Conventional geologists interpret many sandstones of the Permian geological system as windblown desert sands (McKee and Bigarella 1979), which would have been impossible to form during a global Flood. However, new research by creationists indicates that these sandstones were in fact deposited as large underwater dunes called sand waves (Garner 2008, 2009b; Garner and Whitmore 2011; Whitmore et al. 2014, 2015; Whitmore 2015, 2019a, 2019b; Whitmore and Garner 2018). Wise (2002, p.205) suggested that these Permian deposits may represent pre-Flood desert or coastal dune sands that were reworked and redeposited during the Flood; hence we have reconstructed the Permian as a coastal biome.
The diorama is based on data from Gregory (1926), Broom (1937), Colbert (1948), Cox (1964), Boonstra (1969), and Smith and Evans (1995). All the animals shown in the diorama are from the Karoo beds of South Africa, with the exception of Coelurosauravus, which is known from fossils in Madagascar and Europe (Evans and Haubold 1987).
Some critics of creationism have claimed it would have been impossible for the 800 billion vertebrates in the Karoo fossil beds to have been alive at one time (i.e., in the pre-Flood world). However, Woodmorappe (1986, 2000) has shown that the 800 billion figure is largely conjectural and that the pre-Flood world could, in any case, have supported such a population.
Dinosaurs I. Triassic biome (pages 34-35)
Wise (2011) proposes that three successive sets of Flood layers – the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous layers – represent three different dinosaur communities living at the same time just before the Flood, but at different locations. These communities were buried in succession, as each was overrun by the advancing floodwaters.
The dinosaurs in the Triassic diorama are based on fossils from the Ischigualasto Formation of northwestern Argentina (Ezcurra 2010; Langer et al. 2010; Martínez et al. 2011). The non-dinosaurian reptiles are documented in Benton (1997, p.233). The therapsids Probainognathus and Chiniquodon are described in Martínez et al. (2013).
Dinosaurs II. Jurassic biome (pages 36-37)
See Wise (2011).
The dinosaurs in the Jurassic diorama are based on fossils from the Morrison Formation of Colorado and surrounding states (Weishampel et al. 2004, pp.543-544; see references therein). The mammals Docodon and Priacodon are documented in Foster (2007) and the pterosaur Harpactognathus is described in Carpenter et al. (2003). The only non-Morrison taxon in the diorama is Archaeopteryx, which is known from strata of approximately equivalent age in Europe (Weishampel et al. 2004, p.211).
Snelling (2014b) describes “Ebenezer”, a world-class Allosaurus specimen residing in the Creation Museum in Kentucky, which was recovered from a catastrophically deposited debris flow within the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation. Hoesch and Austin (2004) argue that the famous “fossil wall” at Dinosaur National Monument, also part of the Brushy Basin Member, represents a transported death assemblage, not an in situ ecosystem.
The story of the Great American Bone Wars is recounted by Wallace (1999).
Dinosaurs III. Cretaceous biome (pages 38-39)
See Wise (2011).
The dinosaurs in the Cretaceous diorama are based on fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana and surrounding states (Weishampel et al. 2004, p.584; see references therein). The mammals Alphadon and Mesodma are documented in Hunter and Archibald (2002). Henderson and Peterson (2006) described a cervical vertebra from a Hell Creek azhdarchid pterosaur. In our diorama, we have represented this pterosaur as Quetzalcoatlus, although the vertebra could not be assigned confidently to a genus.
We have made the (controversial to some) decision to portray Dromaeosaurus and Troodon (in the Cretaceous biome) and Ornitholestes (in the Jurassic biome) with feathers. There is a growing body of evidence that at least some members of the groups to which these dinosaurs belonged possessed feathers. Some of these fossil specimens are preserved with impressions of long, quilled feathers and some with short, downy feathers (e.g., Chen et al. 1998; Ji and Ji 1997; Ji et al. 1998, 2007, 2012; Xu et al. 1999a, 1999b, 2003, 2004, 2010, 2012, 2015; Xu and Wang 2003; Turner et al. 2007b; Hu et al. 2009; Chiappe and Göhlich 2010; Zelenitsky et al. 2012; Godefroit et al. 2013; Pu et al. 2013; Han et al. 2014; Lü and Brusatte 2015). Others do not preserve feather impressions, but there are “bumps” on the forearms (interpreted as quill nodes) where feathers would have been attached (e.g., Turner et al. 2007a, DePalma et al. 2015; Funston and Currie 2016). The discovery of feathered dinosaurs adds to our appreciation of the diversity of life before the Flood (McLain 2020).
Statistical baraminology studies by Garner et al. (2013) and McLain et al. (2018) found discontinuity between modern birds and dinosaurs, consistent with the biblical claim that birds had a separate origin from land animals (Genesis 1:20-25, 31). However, some feathered animals clustered with the dinosaurs and not with the birds, consistent with the idea that at least some Jurassic and Cretaceous feathered animals are dinosaurs and not birds.
Upchurch (2010) and Garner (2020) describe a creationist dinosaur dig in eastern Wyoming. The rocks being excavated belong to the Lance Formation, the equivalent in Wyoming of the Hell Creek Formation in Montana. The project is uncovering evidence favouring a catastrophic mass mortality event. More details of the dig can be found in Spencer et al. (2001), Chadwick et al. (2005, 2006), Chadwick (2006), Weeks and Chadwick (2011), McLain et al. (2014), Weeks et al. (2015), Woods et al. (2015), and Snyder et al. (2020). The project has a dedicated website: http://dinosaurproject.swau.edu A creationist interpretation of the Hell Creek Formation can be found in Clarey (2015b).
Marine reptile biomes (pages 40-41)
The marine reptile faunas of the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous appear to represent aquatic biomes closely associated with the respective dinosaur biomes. It is possible that these marine faunas were inhabitants of continent-bound “lakes” or “seas” adjacent to the dinosaur biomes, but more research is needed to establish this.
The Triassic diorama is based on data from Motani et al. (2008), Jiang et al. (2009), and Wu et al. (2015).
The Jurassic diorama is based on data from Wild (1990).
The Cretaceous diorama is based on data from Everhart (2005, 2006). The giant turtle Archelon occurs in the Pierre Shale that overlies the Niobrara Chalk (Carpenter 2003).
Eden and its surroundings (pages 42-43)
The absence of humans and most mammals, birds, and angiosperms from Flood-deposited rocks, and possible explanations for this absence, are discussed by Wood and Murray (2003, p.190). Dickens and Snelling (2015) have suggested that terrestrial vertebrate bones (and invertebrate shells) were dissolved under acidic conditions in the vicinity of the “fountains of the great deep”.
The diorama is based on data from Cope (1882), Simons (1967), Jaeger (1970), Gingerich (1976), Harrison and Walker (1979), Balouet (1981), Wang and Wang (1991), Wang (1994), Thewissen et al (2007), Ksepka and Clarke (2010), and Bochenski et al. (2013). Since we do not have fossils from this pre-Flood biome, we have reconstructed its inhabitants based on the earliest post-Flood representatives of some of the groups likely to have lived there.
3. THE OLD WORLD DESTROYED
The Flood anticipated (pages 46-48)
For the shape and dimensions of the ark see Lovett (2007) and Hodge (2007).
Hasel (1975, 1978), Davidson (1995), Whitcomb (2007), and Lloyd (2009) present a range of biblical evidence demonstrating that the Flood was global.
Estimates of the number of animals on the ark were made for the Ark Encounter in Kentucky
by Lightner et al. (2011), Lightner (2012, 2013), Hennigan (2013a, 2013b, 2014a, 2014b,
2015), and Ross (2013a, 2014a). An earlier estimate of the number of animals on the ark was by Jones (1973).
Woodmorappe (1996) has defended the reasonableness of the ark account, although for the purposes of his argument he presupposed a much larger number of ark animals than was likely the case.
The Flood begins (pages 49-50)
Fouts and Wise (1998) present biblical data suggesting that the “fountains of the great deep” were water sources distributed across the earth’s surface, both on the continents and in the oceans.
Geological evidence of megaquakes and the collapse of the continental margins at the start of the Flood is described by Austin and Wise (1994), Sigler and Wingerden (1998), and Wingerden (2003).
Peters and Gaines (2012) document the remarkable extent of the Great Unconformity. Dickens (2016) provides a creationist interpretation of the geochemical signatures associated with this boundary. Wise (2010a) describes the sudden appearance of the Cambrian animals, and its explanation in terms of early Flood burial.
The Flood unfolds (pages 50-54)
Snelling (2016) describes the evidence supporting plate tectonics.
The catastrophic plate tectonics model was introduced to creationism by Austin et al. (1994). Snelling (2007a) provides a layperson-friendly explanation of catastrophic plate tectonics. The model is defended against some criticisms in a paper by Clarey (2016).
The supersonic steam jets and sea level rise associated with catastrophic plate tectonics are described by Baumgardner (2002). Baumgardner (1986, 1990, 1994a, 1994b, 2003) describes the numerical modelling of the thermal runaway in the earth’s mantle that forms an important part of the catastrophic plate tectonics model.
Six geological evidences for the global Flood are summarised by Snelling (2007b, 2008a, 2008b, 2008c, 2008d, 2009a, 2009b).
Biomes are buried (pages 54-56)
Snelling (2010b) explains how the fossil order reflects the order in which creatures were sequentially buried during the Flood.
The ecological zonation theory was originally developed by Clark (1946, 1971, 1977). However, it has since been modified to propose biogeographic, rather than elevational, provinces in the pre-Flood world (e.g., Wood and Murray 2003, pp.188-191).
The preservation of the fossilized remains of Hylonomus and other vertebrates in tree stumps at Joggins, Nova Scotia, is documented in Lyell and Dawson (1853), Dawson (1862, 1863, 1870, 1876, 1882, 1891a, 1891b, 1892a, 1892b, 1894, 1895), Owen (1862), Steen (1933), Carroll (1964, 1966, 1967, 1970), and Holmes et al. (1998, 2010).
Snelling (2013) gives a creationist perspective on the origin of the Carboniferous coal layers, formed during the Flood from plant remains representing part of the pre-Flood floating forest.
Brand and Florence (1982) present data showing that trackways of reptiles and amphibians occur stratigraphically lower than the body fossils of the creatures that likely made them. Likewise, there is a worldwide pattern of trilobite tracks preceding the appearance of trilobite body fossils (Wise 2010b). These patterns are best explained by a global Flood model.
Evidence of rapid burial (pages 56-59)
The petrification of the Santana Formation fishes is described by Martill (1989). Wild (1990) describes the remarkable preservation of the vertebrates in the Jurassic sediments of Holzmaden.
Research on the “death pose” of fossil vertebrates is reported by Padian and Faux (2007) and Cutler et al. (2011). The enrolment of trilobites is discussed by Clarkson (1998, pp.365-366). Jellyfish fossils from Cambrian rocks in Wisconsin and Utah are described by Hagadorn et al. (2002) and Cartwright et al. (2007).
Whitmore (2007) makes the argument that the common preservation of fragile shells is evidence of rapid burial.
The upright fossil trees of Joggins, Nova Scotia, and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, are described by Coffin et al. (2005, pp.212-249).
Wise (1991, 2010c) argues that the completeness of the fossil record is much closer to the expectations of young-age creationism than to those of conventional, long-age geology. The data on modern taxa with a fossil record are taken from Romer (1966, pp.347-396) and Valentine (1989).
The discovery of soft tissues, proteins, and perhaps even genetic material in dinosaur remains is documented by Schweitzer et al. (2005, 2007, 2009), Kaye et al. (2008), and Bailleul et al. (2020). Ross (2010) argues that the survival of soft tissues in dinosaur bones makes sense if the bones were buried only a few thousand years ago during Noah’s Flood. The Creation Research Society has sponsored the iDINO Project to study this issue from a creationist perspective (Anderson 2015a). See also Thomas (2013, 2015), Anderson (2015b), and DeMassa and Boudreaux (2015).
The Flood ends (pages 60-61)
Whitmore and Garner (2008) proposed that the pre-Flood, Flood and post-Flood boundaries can be identified by applying multiple criteria and by recognizing widespread patterns, independent of radiometric dates and zone fossils. Application of this method to the rock column in Wyoming led the authors to conclude that the Flood/post-Flood boundary coincided approximately with the end of the Mesozoic.
Chadwick (2000) describes his compilation of a global database of paleocurrent data, revealing that the Paleozoic and to a lesser extent the Mesozoic are dominated by large-scale directional trends, while the Cenozoic has much more scattered paleocurrent directions. This is consistent with a Flood/post-Flood boundary around the end of the Mesozoic. The paleocurrent database has been published by Brand et al. (2015).
Ross (2012, 2014b) argues that the highest significant biostratigraphic break, an expected feature of the Flood/post-Flood boundary, is associated with the end of the Mesozoic. Arment (2014, 2020a, 2020b) draws similar conclusions. Moreover, Wise (1989) argues that a Flood/post-Flood boundary around the end of the Mesozoic is consistent with the observation that exceptions to stasis and abrupt appearance seem to occur only in post-Mesozoic fossil species.
However, there is a great deal of ongoing debate about the location of the Flood/post-Flood boundary. For example, see Holt (1996) and Oard (2013).
Habermehl (2008) reviews the biblical clues to the ark landing place and examines several claimed ark locations.
4. A NEW WORLD EMERGES
An unfamiliar world (pages 64-66)
Our depictions of the animals leaving the ark are based on the earliest representatives of their respective kinds found in post-Flood rocks. Belknap and Chaffey (2016) consider some of the more exotic animals that were present on the ark, including representatives of now-extinct kinds and the unfamiliar ancestors of some modern animals.
The animals in the diorama are based on data from Cope (1872), Marsh (1891), Wortman (1898), Wetmore (1926), Matthew et al. (1929), Jepsen (1966), Martin and Black (1972), Hamilton (1978), Storch and Lister (1985), Houde and Haubold (1987), Thewissen (1990), MacFadden (1994), Kalb and Froehlich (1995), Solounias et al. (1995), Buffetaut (1997), Turner (1997), Croft et al. (2007), Franzen et al. (2009), De Pietri et al. (2011), and Missiaen et al. (2011).
Wise (2002, pp.220-223) discusses the destruction of biomes by the Flood, including the floating forest and the stromatolite reef. He also suggests that after the Flood the gymnosperms were crowded out by angiosperms, and that this in turn may have made post-Flood dinosaurs rare and prone to extinction.
Multiplying and filling the earth (pages 66-67)
Wise and Croxton (2003) propose that plants and animals rafted across oceans on and among masses of logs, plant debris, and vegetation mats in the immediate post-Flood world. This young-age creationist biogeographic model seems to explain not only the data accounted for by the best evolutionary models, but also the data that those evolutionary models fail to explain.
Wise (2002, p.223) suggests that marsupials might have ridden the plant rafts to island continents like Australia before slower-moving organisms. See also Wood and Murray (2003, pp.197-198). There is an interesting discussion of marsupial versus placental reproductive strategies in Hayssen et al. (1985).
The survival of marine and plant life outside the ark is discussed by Smith (1979), Darrall (1986), Cumming (1991), and Woodmorappe (1996, pp.139-162).
The ark kinds diversify (pages 68-71)
Evidence that all extant members of the cat family belong to a single created kind, and therefore must have arisen from an ancestral cat on the ark, is presented by Robinson and Cavanaugh (1998). Cavanaugh et al. (2003), and Wood (2008b) likewise argue that all horses, living and fossil, were descended from an ancestral ark horse. Similar conclusions concerning cats, horses, and brontotheres were reported by Thompson and Wood (2018).
Wood (2011a) surveyed three mammal classifications to identify the number of species or genera in a typical terrestrial mammal family, assuming that the rank of family approximates the created kind. The results indicate that most mammal families contain relatively few species, but a few families have many species. Creationist mechanisms of speciation must account for both trends: widespread lack of speciation but occasional extravagant speciation.
Wood (2003a) introduced the concept of mediated design, the idea that God created organisms with the ability to adapt to future change in specific, pre-designed ways. The idea is discussed further in Hennigan et al. (2009).
The transposition of genetic material in the form of Altruistic Genetic Elements (AGEs) was proposed by Wood (2002b) as a solution to the problem of rapid post-Flood diversification of baramins. A later paper by Wood (2003b) discussed new data, some of which supported the AGEing model and some of which called for revision of the model. Other possible mechanisms of rapid, post-Flood biological change, including accelerated mutation rates, are discussed in Wood (2013a, 2013c), with references to many other papers in the creationist literature.
Cooling and drying of the world (pages 72-73)
Isotope studies of foraminifera shells buried in seafloor sediments indicate that the oceans were once much warmer and have cooled down over time to the present average temperature (Vardiman 1996). Modelling by Vardiman (1994, 1998, 2003, 2008a, 2008b, 2010, 2011) and Vardiman and Brewer (2010a, 2010b, 2012a, 2012b) has shown that the continents would have been subjected to heavy and prolonged rain as the oceans cooled by evaporation.
Whitmore (2008, 2013) describes the catastrophic processes of erosion and sedimentation that would have been associated with the climatic and geological changes in the centuries after the Flood.
Over time the world cooled down and dried out, trends that are evident in the post-Flood fossil record. For example, the post-Flood fossil record evidences a transition from woodland to grassland communities with simultaneous changes across multiple groups of mammals reflecting a transition from browsing to grazing (e.g., increased hypsodonty) (Wise 1995, 2002, pp.218-220). Deserts also developed and expanded at this time (Wise 2002, pp.214-215).
The diorama is based on data from Grande (1984) and Gunnell (2001). Whitmore (2006a) and Whitmore and Wise (2008) present evidence that the Green River Formation was formed in an early post-Flood lake. The preservation of so many fish in the Green River Formation is evidence that sedimentation in the lake was rapid (Whitmore 2006b).
Humans spread across the earth (pages 74-77)
The diorama is based on data from Gabunia et al. (2000a), Gabunia et al. (2000b), Vekua et al. (2002), and Lordkipanidze et al. (2006, 2007, 2013).
Snelling and Matthews (2012) explain the human fossil record in the context of the dispersal from Babel. The fact that humans migrated across the world later than the animals explains the fact that apes (including extinct forms such as the australopithecines) appear earlier in the post-Flood fossil record than humans (Wise 1994, 2008a).
Data on the diversity of the various Homo species is taken from Leakey (1994), Stringer and Gamble (1994, pp.81-83), Brown et al. (2004), and Berger et al. (2015).
Baraminological studies indicate that all members of the genus Homo belong to the human created kind (Wise 2005; Wood 2010; Wood 2016a; O’Micks 2016a), although contention surrounds the placement of some Homo species. For example, see the exchanges between O’Micks (2016b, 2016c, 2017a, 2017b, 2017c), Wood (2016b, 2017), and McLain (2017a) concerning Homo naledi. Australopithecus sediba seems also to cluster with humans, supporting its inclusion in Homo (Wood 2010, 2016a), but see the dissenting opinions of Menton et al. (2010). See also Wood (2011b, 2013b, 2014, 2016c) and Wise (2016). Overall, these studies indicate the high diversity of humans as they spread from Babel.
The ice advance (pages 78-80)
The diorama is based on data from Kurtén (1976), Harrison (1987), Stringer (2006), Boismier et al. (2012), Montgomery et al. (2014), and Bestwick and Smith (2015).
Although the Bible does not refer explicitly to the ice age, it does give us information that can help us determine when the ice built up and melted away (Snelling and Matthews 2013). Wise (2002, p.216) has suggested that this episode is referred to as an “ice advance” rather than an “ice age”, since in the creation model there was only one, short-lived glaciation.
Oard (1990a, 1990b, 1990c, 2004) has proposed an ice age model that explains how the unique conditions of the post-Flood world led to a single, rapid ice age. Oard’s model has been supported by computer modeling efforts by creationists, including Vardiman (2001), Horstemeyer and Gullett (2003), Sherburn et al. (2008), and Gollmer (2013, 2018). See also Vardiman (2013).
During the glacial episode, a land bridge called Beringia connected Asia with North America (Elias et al. 1996) and a land bridge called Doggerland connected Britain to mainland Europe (Gaffney et al. 2009). The final flooding of Doggerland appears to have been associated with a catastrophic tsunami, generated by a submarine landslide off the coast of Norway (Weninger et al. 2008).
Ross (2013b) argues that the abundance of resources, the efficiency of size, and better heat retention help to explain the large sizes of many ice age mammals. Dwarf mammoths on Wrangel Island were first reported by Vartanyan et al. (1993).
The extinction of the ice age megafauna and its probable causes is discussed in Oard (1990, pp.124-133). See also Oard (2000, 2008).
The rise of civilizations (page 81)
The order in which the first civilizations arose is documented by Robinson (1995). Waring (2008) notes the rather sudden emergence of these civilizations and their technologies.
The details about the city-kingdom of Ur are from Douglas and Hillyer (1982, p.1231), Millard (1997, pp.50-53), and Livingston (2008).
5. FOSSILS AND THE FOSSIL RECORD
What are fossils? (pages 84-85)
Standard evolutionary texts on trace fossils include Bromley (1996) and Seilacher (2007). Cowart and Froede (1994) and Woodmorappe (2006) discuss trace fossils from a creationist
Early concepts concerning fossils are discussed by Rudwick (1972) and Edwards (1976). John Woodward’s ideas about the formation of fossils during Noah’s Flood are laid out in his Essay toward a Natural History of the Earth (Woodward 1695).
What conditions are needed for fossils to form? (page 86)
Whitmore (2009b) outlines the importance of rapid burial and catastrophic processes for fossil preservation.
How are fossils preserved? (page 87)
Various modes of fossil preservation are explained by Nield and Tucker (1985, pp.1-4).
Monks (2009) provides a helpful guide to the standard toolkit used by field geologists and paleontologists.
What kinds of rocks contain fossils? (pages 88-89)
Snelling’s (2009c) two-volume book, Earth’s Catastrophic Past, provides an in-depth introduction to creationist geology. Other helpful books about creationist geology include Brand and Chadwick (2016), Ross et al. (2015), and Clarey (2020).
The global patterns that geologists discern in the rock record are documented, with examples, by Ager (1981, pp.1-14) and Morton (1984). Some interesting fossil patterns are described and discussed by Gibson (1996).
Ritland (1981, 1982) discusses the historical development of the geological column concept. Tyler and Coffin (2006) make the case for accepting the geological column but rejecting the long-age chronology usually attached to it. Likewise, Snelling (2015) argues that creationists can confidently use the geological column to understand the order in which the rock layers were formed. Snelling et al. (1996) is a statement by nine geologists and other specialists affirming the value of the geological column as a sound basis for research in creationist geology.
What does the fossil order mean? (pages 90-94)
One of the major arguments in favour of evolutionary theory concerns fossil organisms that are interpreted as evolutionary transitional forms. Wise (1995) provides an insightful evaluation of transitional forms from a creationist perspective. All examples of evolutionary links that have been claimed are, in fact, mosaics, not links (Wise 2008b). In other words, they exhibit unique combinations of traits (some of which are shared with other organisms) but the traits are fully developed, and not partially developed and intermediate as evolutionary theory would predict.
The illustration depicting two interpretations of the geological column was modified from Wise and Richardson (2004, p.132).
The life and work of creation biologist Frank Lewis Marsh is outlined in Wood and Murray (2003, pp.15-17). The term baramin was introduced in his Fundamental Biology (Marsh 1941, p.100).
Wise (1990) introduced the creationist orchard concept, in a paper that also launched the discipline of baraminology. Other recommended papers on baraminology include Wise (1992a), Frair (2000), Wood et al. (2003), Sanders and Wise (2003), and Wood (2005, 2006b, 2008a, 2013a).
Evidence for the status of the grass, woodpecker, and bear families as created kinds is presented by Wood (2002a), Hennigan (2010), Garner (2014), and Thompson and Wood (2018).
An unpublished study by Wise (n.d.) showed that there was a statistically significant agreement between the fossil order and the predicted evolutionary order in only five out of 144 test cases.
How are fossils classified? (pages 94-95)
According to “the biological species concept”, members of the same species are able to breed with one another but usually do not (or cannot) breed with members of other species. However, this definition cannot be applied to fossils or to asexual organisms, and in practice most species are defined using morphological criteria.
Wise (2014) has proposed a creationist alternative, which he calls “the revelatory species concept”. He says:
Romans 1:18-20 suggests that God created the universe with physical illustrations of His invisible attributes and God created humans with the ability to recognize those illustrations. As a distinctly creationist species concept, it is here proposed that species were created as basic characters or brushstrokes of many of these illustrations (here named the revelatory species concept). To properly recognize these illustrations, it is also here proposed that humans were created to recognize the species taxon by being endowed with the ability to characterize entities with the simplest possible approximations (what is here called the abstractification process). According to the revelatory species concept, organisms were created in taxa (recognizable groups of similar, stable morphologies distinct from all other taxa). The least inclusive taxa (the finest brushstrokes) are species. As a consequence of the abstractification process, humans not only innately recognize species, but also innately classify organisms into nested hierarchies that, in fact, reflect creation’s true hierarchal design.
The assignment of different names to separate parts of the tree known as Lepidodendron is noted by Milsom and Rigby (2009, p.103). The late evolutionary biologist, Stephen Jay Gould (1991, pp.194-206) gives a fascinating account of how Anomalocaris was reconstructed from component parts that had previously been assigned to other organisms.
6. MAJOR FOSSIL GROUPS
Microfossils (pages 98-99)
Standard evolutionary texts on microfossils include Brasier (1980) and Armstrong and Brasier (2005).
Purdom and Snelling (2013) argue that stromatolites, and even stromatolite reefs, of genuinely biological origin can be documented as far back in the rock record as the uppermost Archaean (around 3.5 billion years ago in conventional dating).
Tosk (1988) points out that the distribution of foraminifera in the fossil record seems to bear some resemblance to their ecological distribution in the oceans today, suggesting that this could be explained by a model in which foraminifera living in different parts of the pre-Flood ocean were sequentially buried during the global Flood.
Roth (1985) argues that the foraminifera-rich sediments on the present-day ocean floors could plausibly have accumulated in the time since the global Flood. Snelling (2009c, pp.925-930) provides a creationist perspective on the formation of coccolith-rich and diatom-rich sediments.
Some examples of giant-sized parafusulinids and nummulitids are described by Hamam (1975) and Pérez-Ramos and Nestell (2002).
The exquisite architecture of diatom shells is described by Armitage (1994, 2012) and Armitage and Lumsden (1995).
Plants (pages 100-102)
Standard evolutionary texts on fossil plants include Davis and Kenrick (2004), Taylor et al. (2009), Cleal (2013), Stinchcomb (2013), and Willis and McElwain (2013).
Sanders (2013) applied baraminological methods to the fossil record of angiosperms and estimated there are between 212 and 222 flowering plant kinds, mostly families and suborders but some orders.
Sponges, corals, and bryozoans (pages 103-104)
Clarkson’s textbook (1998) provides an evolutionary account of the fossil record of sponges (chapter 4), corals (chapter 5), and bryozoans (chapter 6). Botting (2014) discusses the fossil record of Paleozoic sponges and suggests that they are surprisingly abundant and diverse.
The formation of both modern and fossil reefs poses time challenges for young-age creationism. Whitmore (2009a) provides a constructive, though critical, review of earlier creationist work on modern and fossil reefs and makes suggestions for future research.
Brachiopods (pages 105-106)
A classic evolutionary work on living and fossil brachiopods is Rudwick (1970). Monks (2014) provides a popular overview of the productids, a group that includes giant forms like Gigantoproductus.
Mollusks I. Bivalves (pages 107-108)
Standard evolutionary accounts of fossil bivalves can be found in Clarkson (1998, pp.203-221) and Taylor and Lewis (2005, pp.65-75).
Mollusks II. Gastropods (page 109)
Standard evolutionary accounts of fossil gastropods can be found in Clarkson (1998, pp.222-229) and Taylor and Lewis (2005, pp.76-85).
Mollusks III. Cephalopods (pages 110-111)
Standard evolutionary accounts of fossil cephalopods can be found in Clarkson (1998, pp.229-255) and Taylor and Lewis (2005, pp.85-96, 113). Woodmorappe (1978) discussed the cephalopods from a creationist perspective.
Monks (2008b, 2010, 2013) provides popular-level overviews of belemnites, ammonites and Paleozoic nautiloids. Monks (2008a) and Grulke (2014) are useful sources on heteromorphic ammonites.
Arthropods I. Trilobites (pages 112-113)
Standard evolutionary texts on fossil trilobites include Levi-Setti (1995, 2014) and Lawrence and Stammers (2014). Fortey (2000) provides a lively, popular account.
Chadwick and DeHaan (2000) showcase the complexity of the trilobite as evidence favoring intelligent design over unguided evolution.
Torney (2015) describes the extraordinary optics of both holochroal and schizochroal eyes in trilobites. Wise (2012) argues that the schizochroal eye is a remarkable testimony to God’s design.
Arthropods II. Chelicerates, crustaceans, myriapods, and insects (pages 114-115)
Evolutionary accounts of fossil chelicerates, crustaceans, myriapods, and insects can be found in Clarkson (1998, pp.388-400) and Taylor and Lewis (2005, pp.148-161). Popular overviews of fossil insects and crustaceans are provided by Penney (2015) and Monks (2015).
The Arthropleura trackways at Crail are described by Shimmin and Day (2008). Meyer (2003) documents the remarkably preserved fossils of Florissant National Monument, including the insects.
Echinoderms (pages 116-117)
Standard evolutionary texts on fossil echinoderms include Smith (1984) and Ausich and Webster (2008). The extraordinary water vascular system of echinoderms is described by Buchsbaum et al. (1987, pp.467-471).
Graptolites (page 118)
A standard evolutionary text on graptolites is Palmer and Rickards (2001).
Vertebrates I. Fishes (pages 119-121)
Standard evolutionary texts on fossil fishes include Moy-Thomas and Miles (1971), Maisey (1996), and Long (2010). Myllokunmingia and Haikouichthys were first described by Shu et al. (1999). Descriptions of the probable life habits of the fishes depicted in this chapter can be found in Norman (1994, pp.69-83).
The first description of the conodont animal was by Briggs et al. (1983).
Vertebrates II. Amphibians and reptiles (pages 121-124)
Standard evolutionary texts on fossil amphibians and reptiles include Benton (1990), Fastovsky and Weishampel (2005), Carroll (2009), Dixon (2010), Chinsamy-Turan (2011), Brusatte (2012), Clack (2012), Witton (2013), and Schoch (2014).
Garner (2003) reviewed the fossil record of the semi-aquatic Upper Devonian tetrapods from a creationist perspective. Some initial baraminology work on these fossil tetrapods has been done by Garner and Asher (2018).
Recent creationist books on dinosaurs include Kennedy (2006) and Clarey (2015a).
The extinct pelycosaur family, Caseidae, was identified as a created kind by Aaron (2014a). Some work has also been done to identify created kinds among the therapsids and associated forms (McLain 2017b, 2017c; Talavera and McLain 2017, 2018; Lay and McLain 2019). Likewise, Wood et al. (2011), Aaron (2014b), and Doran et al. (2018) have begun the task of identifying the dinosaur kinds.
Vertebrates III. Birds and mammals (pages 125-127)
Standard evolutionary texts on fossil birds include Feduccia (1996), Chiappe and Witmer (2002), Chiappe (2007), and Dyke and Kaiser (2011). Mesozoic mammals are discussed by Lillegraven et al. (1979), Kielan-Jaworowska et al. (2004), Kemp (2005), and Kielan-Jaworowska (2013). An evolutionary account of Cenozoic mammals is provided by Prothero (2006).
Creationists have published many baraminology studies aimed at identifying the created kinds of birds and mammals. See, for example, Wood (2016e) and Thompson and Wood (2018).
A PERSONAL REFLECTION: GLORIFYING GOD THROUGH SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY
An excellent resource for creationist students thinking about a career in science is Wood’s (2018) book, The Quest: Exploring Creation’s Hardest Problems. Thought-provoking and uncompromising, The Quest invites the reader to view the hard scientific questions as an invitation to a lifetime of discipleship seeking God.
BCS = Biblical Creation Society
BSG = Biology Study Group
GRI = Geoscience Research Institute
ICR = Institute for Creation Research
TJ = Technical Journal
Answers can be accessed at https://answersingenesis.org/answers/magazine/
Answers Research Journal can be accessed at https://answersresearchjournal.org/
Creation can be accessed at https://creation.com/creation-magazine-articles
Creation Research Society Quarterly can be accessed at
e-Origins can be accessed at https://biblicalcreationtrust.org/resources-e-origins.html
Journal of Creation (formerly Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal and TJ) can be accessed at
Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences can be accessed at
Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series C: Earth Sciences can be accessed at
Occasional Papers of the BSG can be accessed at https://tinyurl.com/b2h929
Origins [GRI] can be accessed at https://grisda.org/origins-1
Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism can be accessed at
Aaron, M. 2014a. Baraminological analysis of the Caseidae (Synapsida: Pelycosauria). Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 4:19-22.
Aaron, M. 2014b. Discerning tyrants from usurpers: a statistical baraminological analysis of Tyrannosauroidea yielding the first dinosaur holobaramin. Answers Research Journal 7:463-481.
Ager, D.V. 1981. The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record. Second edition. Macmillan, London.
Anderson, K. 2015a. The iDINO Project. Creation Research Society Quarterly 51:229-233.
Anderson, K. 2015b. Dinosaur tissue or bacterial biofilms? Creation Research Society Quarterly 51:259-267.
Arment, C. 2014. Fossil snakes and the Flood boundary in North America. Journal of Creation 28(3):13-15.
Arment, C. 2020a. To the ark, and back again? Using the marsupial fossil record to investigate the post-Flood boundary. Answers Research Journal 13:1-22.
Arment, C. 2020b. Implications of creation biology for a Neogene-Quaternary Flood/Post-Flood boundary. Answers Research Journal 13:241-256.
Armitage, M.H. 1994. Those who live in glass houses stow no thrones. Creation Research Society Quarterly 31:167-170.
Armitage, M.H. 2012. We fix our eyes not on what is seen but on what is unseen: diatom nanoarchitecture. Creation Research Society Quarterly 48:255-261.
Armitage, M. and Lumsden, R.D. 1995. Microgeometric design of diatoms: jewels of the sea. ICR Impact 265:i-iv.
Armstrong, H.A. and Brasier, M.D. 2005. Microfossils. Second edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
Ausich, W.I. and Webster, G.D. 2008. Echinoderm Palaeobiology. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana.
Austin, S.A. 1979. Depositional environment of the Kentucky No. 12 coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian) of western Kentucky, with special reference to the origin of coal lithotypes. PhD dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Austin, S.A., Baumgardner, J.R., Snelling, A.A., Vardiman, L. and Wise, K.P. 1994. Catastrophic plate tectonics: a global Flood model of earth history. pp.609-621 in: Walsh, R.E. (editor). Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Austin, S.A. and Humphreys, D.R. 1990. The sea’s missing salt: a dilemma for evolutionists. pp.17-33 in: Walsh, R.E. and Brooks, C.L. (editors). Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Creationism, Volume II: Technical Symposium Sessions and Additional Topics. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Austin, S.A. and Sanders, R.W. 2018. Historical survey of the floating mat model for the origin of Carboniferous coal beds. pp.277-286 in: Whitmore, J.H. (editor). Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Austin, S.A. and Wise, K.P. 1994. The pre-Flood/Flood boundary: as defined in Grand Canyon, Arizona and eastern Mojave Desert, California. pp.37-47 in: Walsh, R.E. (editor). Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Bailleul, A.M., Zheng, W., Horner, J.R., Hall, B.K., Holliday, C.M. and Schweitzer, M.H. 2020. Evidence of proteins, chromosomes and chemical markers of DNA in exceptionally preserved dinosaur cartilage. National Science Review 7:815-822.
Balouet, J.C. 1981. Zeltornis ginsburgi, n.g. n.sp. (Ardeidae, Aves), Héron géant du Miocène inférieur du Djebel Zelten (Libye). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 293:235-239.
Baumgardner, J.R. 1986. Numerical simulation of the large-scale tectonic changes accompanying the Flood. pp.17-30 in: Walsh, R.E., Brooks, C.L. and Crowell, R.S. (editors). Proceedings of the First International Conference on Creationism, Volume II: Technical Symposium Sessions and Additional Topics. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Baumgardner, J.R. 1990. 3-D finite element simulation of the global tectonic changes accompanying Noah’s Flood. pp.35-45 in: Walsh, R.E. and Brooks, C.L. (editors). Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Creationism, Volume II: Technical Symposium Sessions and Additional Topics. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Baumgardner, J.R. 1994. Computer modeling of the large-scale tectonics associated with the Genesis Flood. pp.49-62 in: Walsh, R.E. (editor). Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Baumgardner, J.R. 1994b. Runaway subduction as the driving mechanism for the Genesis Flood. pp.63-75 in: Walsh, R.E. (editor). Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Baumgardner, J.R. 2002. Catastrophic plate tectonics: the geophysical context of the Genesis Flood. TJ 16:58-63.
Baumgardner, J.R. 2003. Catastrophic plate tectonics: the physics behind the Genesis Flood. pp.113-126 in: Ivey, R.L., Jr. (editor). Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Belknap, M. and Chaffey, T. 2016. Reimagining ark animals. Answers 11(1):56-62.
Bengtson, S. 1992. The cap-shaped Cambrian fossil Maikhanella and the relationship between coeloscleritophorans and molluscs. Lethaia 25: 401-420.
Benton, M.J. 1990. The Reign of the Reptiles. Kingfisher Books, London.
Benton, M.J. 1991. The Rise of the Mammals. The Apple Press, London.
Benton, M.J. (editor). 1993. The Fossil Record 2. Chapman and Hall, London.
Benton, M.J. 1997. II. Extinction, Triassic. pp.230-236 in: Currie, P.J. and Padian, K. (editors). Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Benton, M.J. 2015. Vertebrate Palaeontology. Fourth edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
Berger, L.R., Hawks, J. de Ruiter, D.J., Churchill, S.E., Schmid, P., Delezene, L.K., Kivell, T.L., Garvin, H.M., Williams, S.A., DeSilva, J.M., Skinner, M.M., Musiba, C.M., Cameron, N., Holliday, T.W., Harcourt-Smith, W., Ackermann, R.R., Bastir, M., Bogin, B., Bolter, D., Brophy, J. Cofran, Z.D., Congdon, K.A., Deane, A.S., Dembo, M., Drapeau, M., Elliott, M.C., Feuerriegel, E.M., Garcia-Martinez, D., Green, D.J., Gurtov, A., Irish, J.D., Kruger, A., Laird, M.F., Marchi, D., Meyer, M.R., Nalla, S., Negash, E.W., Orr, C.M., Radovcic, D., Schroeder, L., Scott, J.E., Throckmorton, Z., Tocheri, M.W., VanSickle, C., Walker, C.S., Wei, P. and Zipfel, B. 2015. Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi chamber, South Africa. eLife 4:e09560.
Bestwick, J. and Smith, A.S. 2015. Cresswell Crags fossil material in the Nottingham Natural History Museum, Wollaton Hall, UK. Geological Curator 10:181-192.
Bochenski, Z.M., Tomek, T., Wertz, K. and Swidnicka, E. 2013. The third nearly complete passerine bird from the early Oligocene of Europe. Journal of Ornithology 154:923-931.
Boismier, W.A., Gamble, C. and Coward, F. 2012. Neanderthals Among Mammoths: Excavations at Lynford Quarry, Norfolk. English Heritage, Swindon.
Boonstra, L.D. 1969. The fauna of the Tapinocephalus Zone (Beaufort Beds of the Karoo). Annals of the South African Museum 56:1-73.
Botting, J. 2014. Early sponges: an overlooked treasure. Deposits (39):44-46.
Brand, L.R. 1996. The paradigm of naturalism, compared with a viable alternative: a scientific philosophy for the study of origins. Origins [GRI] 23(1):6-34.
Brand, L.R. 2006. A biblical perspective on the philosophy of science. Origins [GRI] 59:6-42.
Brand, L.R. 2015a. Worldviews and predictions in the scientific study of origins. Origins [GRI] 64:7-20.
Brand, L.R. 2015b. Naturalism: its role in science. Origins [GRI] 64:21-37.
Brand, L. and Chadwick, A. 2016. Faith, Reason, & Earth History: A Paradigm of Earth and Biological Origins by Intelligent Design. Third edition. Andrews University Press, Berrien Springs, Michigan.
Brand, L. and Florence, J. 1982. Stratigraphic distribution of vertebrate fossil footprints compared with body fossils. Origins [GRI] 9(2):67-74.
Brand, L., Wang, M. and Chadwick, A. 2015. Global database of paleocurrent trends through the Phanerozoic and Precambrian. Scientific Data 2:150025.
Brasier, M.D. 1980. Microfossils. George Allen and Unwin, London.
Briggs, D.E.G., Clarkson, E.N.K. and Aldridge, R.J. 1983. The conodont animal. Lethaia 16:1-14.
Bromley, R.G. 1996. Trace Fossils: Biology, Taxonomy and Applications. Second edition. Chapman and Hall, London.
Broom, R. 1937. A further contribution to our knowledge of the fossil reptiles of the Karroo. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London Series B 107:299-318.
Brown, P., Sutikna, T., Morwood, M.J., Soejono, R.P., Jatmiko, Saptomo, E.W. and Due, R.A. 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431:1055-1061.
Brusatte, S.L. 2012. Dinosaur Palaeobiology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
Buchsbaum, R., Buchsbaum, M., Pearse, J. and Pearse, V. 1987. Animals Without Backbones. Third edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Buffetaut, E. 1997. New remains of the giant bird Gastornis from the Upper Paleocene of the eastern Paris Basin and the relationships between Gastornis and Diatryma. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 3:179-190.
Carpenter, K. 2003. Vertebrate biostratigraphy of the Smoky Hill Chalk (Niobrara Formation) and the Sharon Springs Member (Pierre Shale). pp.421-437 in: Harries, P.J. (editor). High-Resolution Approaches in Stratigraphic Paleontology Kluwer Academic Publishers, Amsterdam.
Carpenter, K., Unwin, D.M., Cloward, K., Miles, C.A., and Miles, C. 2003. A new scaphognathine pterosaur from the Upper Jurassic Formation of Wyoming, USA. pp.45-54 in: Buffetaut, E. and Mazin, J.-M. (editors). Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society of London Special Publication 217.
Carroll, R.L. 1964. The earliest reptiles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 45:61-83.
Carroll, R.L. 1966. Microsaurs from the Westphalian B of Joggins Nova Scotia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 177:63-97.
Carroll, R.L. 1967. Labrynthodonts from the Joggins Formation. Journal of Paleontology 4:111-142.
Carroll, R.L. 1970. The ancestry of reptiles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 257:267-308.
Carroll, R. 2009. The Rise of Amphibians: 365 Million Years of Evolution. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
Cartwright, P., Halgedahl, S.L., Hendricks, J.R., Jarrard, R.D., Marques, A.C., Collins, A.G. and Lieberman, B.S. 2007. Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian. PLoS ONE 2(10): e1121.
Cavanaugh, D.P., Wood, T.C. and Wise, K.P. 2003. Fossil Equidae: a monobaraminic, stratomorphic series. pp.143-153 in: Ivey, R.L., Jr. (editor). Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Chadwick, A.V. 2000. Megatrends in North American paleocurrents. http://origins.swau.edu/papers/global/paleocurrents/default.html
Chadwick A.V. 2006. What happened to the dinosaurs? Occasional Papers of the BSG 8:8-9.
Chadwick, A.V. and DeHaan, R.F. 2000. The trilobite: enigma of complexity. A case for intelligent design. Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 52:233-241.
Chadwick A.V., Spencer L.A. and Turner L.E. 2005. Taphonomic windows into an Upper Cretaceous Edmontosaurus bonebed. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 37(7):159.
Chadwick A., Spencer L. and Turner L. 2006. Preliminary depositional model for an Upper Cretaceous Edmontosaurus bonebed. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26:49A.
Chen, P., Dong, Z. and Zhen, S. 1998. An exceptionally well-preserved theropod dinosaur from the Yixian Formation of China. Nature 391:147-152.
Chiappe, L.M. 2007. Glorified Dinosaurs: The Origin and Early Evolution of Birds. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.
Chiappe, L.M. and Göhlich, U.B. 2010. Anatomy of Juravenator starki (Theropoda: Coelurosauria) from the Late Jurassic of Germany. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie 258:257-296.
Chiappe, L.M. and Witmer, L.M. 2002. Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
Chinsamy-Turan, A. (editor). 2011. Forerunners of Mammals. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana.
Clack, J.A. 2012. Gaining Ground: The Origin and Evolution of Tetrapods. Second edition. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana.
Clarey, T. 2015a. Dinosaurs: Marvels of God’s Design. Master Books, Green Forest, Arkansas.
Clarey, T.L. 2015b. The Hell Creek Formation: the last gasp of the pre-Flood dinosaurs. Creation Research Society Quarterly 51:286-298.
Clarey, T.L. 2016. Empirical data support seafloor spreading and catastrophic plate tectonics. Journal of Creation 30:76-82.
Clarey, T. 2020. Carved in Stone: Geological Evidence of the Worldwide Flood. Institute for Creation Research, Dallas, Texas.
Clarey, T.L. and Tomkins, J.P. 2016. An investigation into an in situ lycopod forest site and structural anatomy invalidates the floating-forest hypothesis. Creation Research Society Quarterly 53:110-122.
Clark, H.W. 1946. The New Diluvialism. Science Publications, Angwin, California.
Clark, HW. 1971. Paleoecology and the Flood. Creation Research Society Quarterly 8:19-23.
Clark, H.W. 1977. Fossil zones. Creation Research Society Quarterly 14:88-91.
Clarkson, E.N.K. 1998. Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution. Fourth edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
Cleal, C.J. 2013. An Introduction to Plant Fossils. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Coffin, H.G., Brown, R.H. and Gibson, L.J. 2005. Origin by Design. Revised edition. Review and Herald Publishing Association, Hagerstown, Maryland.
Colbert, E.H. 1948. The mammal-like reptile Lycaenops. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 89:353-404.
Cope, E.D. 1872. Descriptions of some new Vertebrata from the Bridger Group of the Eocene. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 12:460-465.
Cope, E.D. 1882. Synopsis of the Vertebrata of the Puerco Eocene epoch. Supplement on a new Meniscotherium from the Wasatch epoch. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 20:461-471.
Cosner, L. and Carter, R. 2015. Textual traditions and biblical chronology. Journal of Creation 29(2):99-105.
Cowart, J.H. and Froede, CR. 1994. The use of trace fossils in refining depositional environments and their application to the creationist model. Creation Research Society Quarterly 31:117-124.
Cox, C.B. 1964. On the palate, dentition, and classification of the fossil reptile Endothiodon and related genera. American Museum Novitates 2171:1-25.
Croft, D.A., Flynn, J. J. and Wyss, A.R. 2007. A new basal glyptodontid and other Xenarthra of the Early Miocene Chucal Fauna, northern Chile. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27:781-797.
Cumming, K.B. 1991. How could fish survive the Genesis Flood? ICR Impact 222:i-iv.
Cutler, A., Britt, B., Scheetz, R. and Cotton, J. 2011. The opisthotonic death pose as a function of muscle tone and aqueous immersion. p.95 in: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (editors). Society of Vertebrate Paleontology November 2011 Meeting Program and Abstracts. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Chicago.
Dalvé, E., 1948. The Fossil Fauna of the Ordovician in the Cincinnatian Region. Department of Geology and Geography, University of Cincinnati Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Darrall, N. 1986. Survival of plant life during the Flood in the time of Noah. Biblical Creation 24:81-96.
Davidson, R.M. 1995. Biblical evidence for the universality of the Genesis Flood. Origins [GRI] 22(2):58-73.
Davis, P. and Kenrick, P. 2004. Fossil Plants. Natural History Museum, London.
Davis, R.A. (editor). 1985. Cincinnati Fossils: An Elementary Guide to the Ordovician Rocks and Fossils of the Cincinnati, Ohio, Region. Cincinnati Museum of Natural History, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Dawson, J.W. 1862. Notice of the discovery of additional remains of land animals in the Coal-Measures of the South Joggins, Nova Scotia. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 18:5-7.
Dawson, J.W. 1863. Notice of a new species of Dendrerpeton, and of the dermal coverings of certain Carboniferous reptiles. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 19:469-473.
Dawson, J.W. 1870. Note on some new animal remains from the Carboniferous and Devonian of Canada. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 26:166-167.
Dawson, J.W. 1876. On a recent discovery of Carboniferous batrachians in Nova Scotia. American Journal of Science (series 3) 12:440-447.
Dawson, J.W. 1882. On the results of recent explorations of erect trees containing reptilian remains in the Coal Formation of Nova Scotia. Canadian Naturalist (series 2) 10:252-254.
Dawson, J.W. 1891a. Note on Hylonomus lyelli, with photographic reproduction of skeleton. Geological Magazine 8:258-259.
Dawson, J.W. 1891b. On new specimens of Dendrerpeton acadianum, with remarks on other Carboniferous amphibians. Geological Magazine 8:145-156.
Dawson, J.W. 1892a. Supplementary report on explorations of erect trees containing animal remains in the Coal-Formation of Nova Scotia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 52:4-5.
Dawson, J.W. 1892b. On the mode of occurrence of remains of land animals in erect trees at the South Joggins, Nova Scotia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 9:127-128.
Dawson, J.W. 1894. Preliminary note on recent discoveries of batrachians and other air-breathers in the Coal Formation of Nova Scotia. Canadian Record of Science 6:1-7.
Dawson, J.W. 1895. Synopsis of the air-breathing animals of the Palaeozoic [rocks] in Canada, up to 1894. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 12:71-88.
DeMassa, J.M. and Boudreaux, E. 2015. Dinosaur peptide preservation and degradation. Creation Research Society Quarterly 51:268-285.
Demidenko, Y.E. 2006. New Cambrian lobopods and chaetognaths of the Siberian Platform. Paleontological Journal 40:234-243.
DePalma, R.A., Burnham, D.A., Martin, L.D., Larson, P.L. and Bakker, R.T. 2015. The first giant raptor (Theropoda: Dromaeosauridae) from the Hell Creek Formation. Paleontological Contributions 14:1-16.
De Pietri, V.L., Manegold, A., Costeur, L. and Mayr, G. 2011. A new species of woodpecker (Aves; Picidae) from the early Miocene of Saulcet (Allier, France). Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 130:307-314.
DeYoung, D. 2005. Thousands … Not Billions: Challenging an Icon of Evolution, Questioning the Age of the Earth. Master Books, Green Forest, Arkansas.
Dickens, H. 2016. The ‘Great Unconformity’ and associated geochemical evidence for Noahic Flood erosion. Journal of Creation 30:8-10.
Dickens, H. and Snelling, A.A. 2015. Terrestrial vertebrates dissolved near Flood fountains. Answers Research Journal 8:437-447.
Dixon, D. 2010. The Complete Book of Dinosaurs. Hermes House, London.
Doran, N. 2015. Mystery of the first animals. Answers 10(2):44-46.
Doran, N., McLain, M.A., Young, N., and Sanderson, A. 2018. The Dinosauria: baraminological and multivariate patterns. pp.404-457 in: Whitmore, J.H. (editor). Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Douglas, J.D. and Hillyer, N. (editors). 1982. New Bible Dictionary. Second edition. Inter-Varsity Press, Leicester.
Durham, J.W. and Caster, K.E. 1963. Helicoplacoidea: a new class of echinoderms. Science 140:820-822.
Dyke, G. and Kaiser, G. (editors). 2011. Living Dinosaurs: The Evolutionary History of Modern Birds. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester.
Edwards, W.N. 1976. The Early History of Palaeontology. British Museum (Natural History), London.
Elias, R.J. 1983. Middle and Late Ordovician solitary rugose corals of the Cincinnati Arch region. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1066-N.
Elias, S.A., Short, S.K., Nelson, C.H. and Birks, H.H. 1996. Life and times of the Bering land bridge. Nature 382:60.
Evans, S.E. and Haubold, H. 1987. A review of the Upper Permian genera Coelurosauravus, Weigeltisaurus and Gracilisaurus (Reptilia: Diapsida). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 90:275-303.
Everhart, M.J. 2005. Oceans Of Kansas: A Natural History Of The Western Interior Sea. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana.
Everhart, M.J. 2006. The occurrence of elasmosaurids (Reptilia: Plesiosauria) in the Niobrara Chalk of Western Kansas. Paludicola 5:170-183.
Ezcurra, M.D. 2010. A new early dinosaur (Saurischia: Sauropodomorpha) from the Late Triassic of Argentina: a reassessment of dinosaur origin and phylogeny. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 8: 371-425.
Fastovsky, D.E. and Weishampel, D.B. 2005. The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs. Second edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Faulkner, D. 2019. An evaluation of astronomical young-age determination methods I: the solar system. Answers Research Journal 12:255-274.
Feduccia, A. 1996. The Origin and Evolution of Birds. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
Ford, T.D. 1958. Pre-Cambrian fossils from Charnwood Forest. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 31:211-217.
Fortey, R. 2000. Trilobite! Eyewitness to Evolution. HarperCollins, London.
Foster, J. 2007. Jurassic West: The Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation and Their World. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, Indiana.
Fouts, D.M. 2015. Right from the Start! Calling Evangelical Leadership to Faith in Genesis 1-2. Self-published.
Fouts, D.M. and Wise, K.P. 1998. Blotting out and breaking up: miscellaneous Hebrew studies in geocatastrophism. pp.217-228 in: Walsh, R.E. (editor). Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Frair, W. 2000. Baraminology – classiﬁcation of created organisms. Creation Research Society Quarterly 37:82-91.
Franzen, J.L., Gingerich, P.D., Habersetzer, J., Hurum, J.H., von Koenigswald, W and Smith, B.H. 2009. Complete primate skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: morphology and paleobiology. PLoS ONE 4:e5723.
Frey, R.C. 1995. Middle and Upper Ordovician nautiloid cephalopods of the Cincinnati Arch region of Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1066-P.
Funston, G.F. and Currie, P.J. 2016. A new caenagnathid (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta, Canada, and a reevaluation of the relationships of Caenagnathidae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2016.1160910.
Gabunia, L., Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Ferring, R., Justus, A., Maisuradze, G., Mouskhelishvili, A., Nioradze, M., Sologashvili, D., Swisher, C. III and Tvalchrelidze, M. 2000a. Current research on the hominid site of Dmanisi. pp.13-27 in: Lordkipanidze, D., Bar-Yosef, O. and Otte, M. (editors). Early Humans at the Gates of Europe, ERAUL 92, Liège, Belgium.
Gabunia, L., Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Swisher, C., III Ferring, R., Justus, A., Nioradze, M., Tvalchrelidze, M., Antón, S.C., Bosinski, G., Jöris, O., de Lumley, M.-A., Majsuradze, G. and Mouskhelishvili, A. 2000b. Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: taxonomy, geological setting, and age. Science 288:1019-1025.
Gaffney, V., Fitch, S. and Smith, D. 2009. Europe’s Lost World: The Rediscovery of Doggerland. Council for British Archaeology, York.
Garner, P. 2003. The fossil record of ‘early’ tetrapods: evidence of a major evolutionary transition? Journal of Creation 17:111-117.
Garner, P. 2008. Sandwaves as a model for the origin of thick cross-bedded sandstones: a preliminary survey. pp.8-9 in: Clarey, T. (editor). Proceedings of the Second Conference on Creation Geology.
Garner, P. 2009a. The New Creationism: Building Scientific Theories on a Biblical Foundation. Evangelical Press, Darlington.
Garner, P. 2009b. Grain size and textural characteristics of sediments from modern sandwaves: a literature review. pp.4-5 in: Clarey, T. (editor). Proceedings of the Third Conference on Creation Geology.
Garner, P.A. 2014. Baraminological analysis of the Picidae (Vertebrata: Aves: Piciformes) and implications for creationist design arguments. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 4:1-11.
Garner, P. 2020. A puzzle of mud and bones. Answers 15(2):66-73.
Garner, P.A. and Asher, J. 2018. Baraminological analysis of Devonian and Carboniferous tetrapodomorphs. pp.458-471 in: Whitmore, J.H. (editor). Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Garner, P.A. and Whitmore, J.H. 2011. What do we know about marine sand waves? A review of their occurrence, morphology and structure. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 43(5):596.
Garner, P.A., Wood, T.C. and Ross, M. 2013. Baraminological analysis of Jurassic and Cretaceous Avialae. n.p. in: Horstemeyer, M. (editor). Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Gibson, J. 1996. Fossil patterns: a classification and evaluation. Origins [GRI] 23(2):68-99.
Gingerich, P.D. 1976. Cranial anatomy and evolution of early Tertiary Plesiadapidae (Mammalia, Primates). University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology 15:1-141.
Glaessner, M.F. 1958. New fossils from the base of the Cambrian in South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 81:185-188.
Glaessner, M.F. and Daily, B. 1959. The geology and Late Precambrian fauna of the Ediacara fossil reserve. Records of the South Australian Museum 13:369-401.
Glaessner, M.F. and Wade, M. 1966. The late Precambrian fossils from Ediacara, South Australia. Palaeontology 9:599.
Godefroit, P., Cau, A., Hu, D.-Y., Escuillié, F., Wu, W. and Dyke, G. 2013. A Jurassic avialan dinosaur from China resolves the early phylogenetic history of birds. Nature 498:359-362.
Gollmer, S.M. 2013. Initial conditions for a post-Flood rapid ice age. n.p. in: Horstemeyer, M. (editor). Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Gollmer, S.M. 2018. Effect of aerosol distributions on precipitation patterns needed for a rapid ice age. pp.695-706 in: Whitmore, J.H. (editor). Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Gould, S.J. 1991. Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. Penguin Books, London.
Gould, S.J. (editor). 1993. The Book of Life. Ebury Hutchinson, London.
Grande, L. 1984. Paleontology of the Green River Formation, with a Review of the Fish Fauna. Second edition. Geological Society of Wyoming Bulletin 63, Laramie, Wyoming.
Gregory, W.K. 1926. The skeleton of Moschops capensis, a dinocephalian reptile from the Permian of South Africa. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 56:179-251.
Grulke, W. 2014. Heteromorph: The Rarest Fossil Ammonites. Nature at its Most Bizarre. At One Communications.
Gunnell, G.F. (editor). 2001. Eocene Biodiversity: Unusual Occurrences and Rarely Sampled Habitats. Topics in Geobiology 18. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.
Gunning, A. 1995. The Fossil Grove. Glasgow Museums, Glasgow.
Haas, W. 1981. Evolution of calcareous hardparts in primitive molluscs. Malacologia 21:403-418.
Habermehl, A. 2008. A review of the search for Noah’s ark. pp.485-502 in: Snelling, A.A. (editor). Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Institute for Creation Research, Dallas, Texas.
Hagadorn, J.W., Dott, R.H., Jr. and Damrow, D. 2002. Stranded on a Late Cambrian shoreline: medusae from central Wisconsin. Geology 30:147-150.
Ham, K. and Pierce, L. 2006. Who begat whom? Answers 1(2):60-63.
Hamam, K.A. 1975. Larger foraminifera from the Lower Eocene of the Gebel Gurnah, Luxor, Egypt. Palaeontology 18:161-178.
Hamilton, W.R. 1978. Fossil giraffes from the Miocene of Africa and a revision of the phylogeny of the Giraffoidea. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B 283:165-229.
Hamilton, W.R., Woolley, A.R. and Bishop, A.C. 1974. Minerals, Rocks and Fossils (Country Life Guide). Country Life Books, Twickenham.
Han, G., Chiappe, L.M., Ji, S.-A., Habib, M., Turner, A.H., Chinsamy, A., Liu, X. and Han, L. 2014. A new raptorial dinosaur with exceptionally long feathering provides insights into dromaeosaurid flight performance. Nature Communications 5:4382.
Harrison, C.J.O. 1987. Pleistocene and prehistoric birds of south-west Britain. Proceedings of the University of Bristol Spelaeological Society 18:81-104.
Harrison, C.J.O. and Walker, C.A. 1979. Birds of the British Middle Eocene. Tertiary Research Special Paper 5:19-26.
Hasel, G.F. 1975. The biblical view of the extent of the Flood. Origins [GRI] 2(2):77-95.
Hasel, G.F. 1978. Some issues regarding the nature and universality of the Genesis Flood narrative. Origins [GRI] 5(2):83-98.
Hasel, G.F. 1980. Genesis 5 and 11: chronogenealogies in the biblical history of beginnings. Origins [GRI] 7:23-27.
Hasel, G.F. 1994. The “days” of creation in Genesis 1: literal “days” or figurative “periods/epochs” of time? Origins [GRI] 21(1):5-38.
Hayssen, V., Lacy, R.C. and Parker, P.J. 1985. Metatherian reproduction: transitional or transcending? American Naturalist 126:617-632.
Henderson, M.D. and Peterson, J.E. 2006. An azhdarchid pterosaur cervical vertebra from the Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian) of southeastern Montana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26:192-195.
Hennigan, T. 2010. The case for holobaraminic status in bears (Family Ursidae) and the implications within a creation model of ecology. Creation Research Society Quarterly 46:271-283.
Hennigan, T. 2013a. An initial estimate toward identifying and numbering amphibian kinds within the orders Caudata and Gymnophiona. Answers Research Journal 6:17-34.
Hennigan, T. 2013b. An initial estimate toward identifying and numbering the frog kinds on the ark: order Anura. Answers Research Journal 6:335-365.
Hennigan, T. 2014a. An initial estimate toward identifying and numbering the ark turtle and crocodile kinds. Answers Research Journal 7:1-10.
Hennigan, T. 2014b. An initial estimate toward identifying and numbering extant tuatara, amphisbaena, and snake kinds. Answers Research Journal 7:31-47.
Hennigan, T. 2015. An initial estimation of the numbers and identification of extant non-snake/non-amphisbaenian lizard kinds: order Squamata. Answers Research Journal 8:171-186.
Hennigan, T., Purdom, G. and Wood, T.C. 2009. Creation’s hidden potential. Answers 4(1):70-75.
Hodge, B. 2007. How long was the original cubit? Answers 2(2):82.
Hoesch, W.A. and Austin, S.A. 2004. Dinosaur National Monument: Jurassic park or Jurassic jumble? ICR Impact 370:i-viii.
Holmes, R.B., Carroll, R.L. and Reisz, R.R. 1998. The first articulated skeleton of Dendrerpeton acadianum (Temnospondyli, Dendrerpetontidae) from the Lower Pennsylvanian locality of Joggins Nova Scotia and a review of its relationships. Journal of Paleontology 18:64-79.
Holmes R.B. and Carroll, R.L. 2010. An articulated embolomere skeleton (Amphibia: Anthracosauria) from the Lower Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian) of Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 47:209-219.
Horstemeyer, M.F. and Gullett, P. 2003. Will mechanics allow a rapid ice age following the Flood? pp.165-174 in: in: Ivey, R.L., Jr. (editor). Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Holt, R.D. 1996. Evidence for a Late Cainozoic Flood/post-Flood boundary. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 10(1):128-167.
Hou, X.-G., Aldridge, R., Bergstrom, J., Siveter, D.J., Siveter, D. and Feng, X.-H. 2004. The Cambrian Fossils of Chengjiang, China: The Flowering of Early Animal Life. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
Houde, P. and Haubold, H. 1987. Palaeotis weigelti restudied: a small middle Eocene Ostrich (Aves : Struthioniformes). Palaeovertebrata 17(2):27-46.
Hu, D., Hou, L., Zhang, L. and Xu, X. 2009. A pre-Archaeopteryx troodontid theropod from China with long feathers on the metatarsus. Nature 461:640-643.
Hunter, J.P. and Archibald, J.D. 2002. Mammals from the end of the age of dinosaurs in North Dakota and southeastern Montana, with a reappraisal of geographic differentiation among Lancian mammals. pp.191-216 in Hartman, J.H., Johnson, K.R., and Nichols, D.J. (editors). The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Northern Great Plains: An Integrated Continental Record of the End of the Cretaceous. Geological Society of America Special Paper 361, Boulder, Colorado.
Jaeger, J.-J. 1970. Pantolestidae nouveaux (Mammalia, Insectivora) de l’Éocène moyen de Bouxwiller (Alsace). Palaeovertebrata 3(3):63-82.
Jepsen, G.L. 1966. Early Eocene bat from Wyoming. Science 154:1333-1339.
Ji, Q., Currie, P.J., Norell, M.A. and Ji, S. 1998. Two feathered dinosaurs from northeastern China. Nature 393:753-761.
Ji, Q. and Ji, S. 1997. Protarchaeopterygid bird (Protarchaeopteryx gen. nov.) – fossil remains of archaeopterygids from China. Chinese Geology 238:38-41.
Ji, S., Ji, Q., Lu J. and Yuan, C. 2007. A new giant compsognathid dinosaur with long filamentous integuments from Lower Cretaceous of northeastern China. Acta Geologica Sinica 81:8-15.
Ji, Q., Lü, J.-C., Wei, X.-F. and Wang, X.-R. 2012. A new oviraptorosaur from the Yixian Formation of Jianchang, Western Liaoning Province, China. Geological Bulletin of China 31: 2102-2107.
Jiang, D., Motani, R. Hao, W., Rieppel, O., Sun, Y., Tintori, A., Sun, Z. and Schmitz, L. 2009. Biodiversity and sequence of the Middle Triassic Panxian Marine Reptile Fauna, Guizhou Province, China. Acta Geologica Sinica 83:451-459.
Jones, A.J. 1973. How many animals on the ark? Creation Research Society Quarterly 10:102-108.
Kalb, J.E. and Froehlich, D.J. 1995. Interrelationships of late Neogene elephantoids: new evidence from the Middle Awash Valley, Afar, Ethiopia. Géobios 28:727-736.
Kaye T.G., Gaugler, G. and Sawlowicz, Z. 2008. Dinosaurian soft tissues interpreted as bacterial biofilms. PLoS ONE 3:e2808.
Kemp T.S. 2005. The Origin and Evolution of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Kennedy, E.G. 2006. Dinosaurs: Where Did They Come From … And Where Did They Go? Pacific Press Publishing Association, Nampa, Idaho.
Kielan-Jaworowska, Z., Cifelli, R.L. and Luo, Z.-X. 2004. Mammals from the Age of Dinosaurs: Origins, Evolution, and Structure, Columbia University Press, New York.
Kielan-Jaworowska, Z. 2013. In Pursuit of Early Mammals. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana.
Ksepka, D.T. and Clarke, J.A. 2010. Primobucco mcgrewi (Aves: Coracii) from the Eocene Green River Formation: new anatomical data from the earliest constrained record of stem rollers. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30:215-25.
Kurtén, B. 1976. The Cave Bear Story: Life and Death of a Vanished Animal. Columbia University Press, New York.
LaFlamme, M., Narbonne, G.M. and Anderson, M.M. 2004. Morphometric analysis of the Ediacaran frond Charniodiscus from the Mistaken Point Formation, Newfoundland. Journal of Paleontology 78:827-837.
Langer, M.C., Ezcurra, M.D., Bittencourt, J.S. and Novas, F.E. 2010. The origin and early evolution of dinosaurs. Biological Reviews 85:55-110.
Lawrence, P. and Stammers, S. 2014. Trilobites of the World: An Atlas of 1000 Photographs. Siri Scientific Press, Rochdale.
Lay, A. and McLain, M.A. 2019. Preliminary results from reanalyzing the cynodont to mammal transitional sequence. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 9:3-4.
Leakey, R.E. 1994. The Origin of Humankind. BasicBooks, New York.
Levi-Setti, R. 1995. Trilobites. Second edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Levi-Setti, R. 2014. The Trilobite Book: A Visual Journey. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Lightner, J.K. 2012. Mammalian ark kinds. Answers Research Journal 5:151-204.
Lightner, J.K. 2013. An initial estimate of avian ark kinds. Answers Research Journal 6:409-466.
Lightner, J.K., Hennigan, T., Purdom, G. and Hodge, B. 2011. Determining the ark kinds. Answers Research Journal 4:195-201.
Lillegraven, J.A., Kielan-Jaworowska, Z. and Clemens, W.A. (editors). 1979. Mesozoic Mammals: The First Two-Thirds of Mammalian History. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
Livingston, D. 2008. Ur connects Babel to today. Answers 3(2):36-37.
Lloyd, S.J. 2009. Christian theology and neo-darwinism are incompatible: an argument from the Resurrection. pp.1-29 in: Finlay, G., Lloyd, S., Pattemore, S. and Swift, D. Debating Darwin. Two Debates: Is Darwinism True & Does it Matter? Paternoster, Milton Keynes.
Lloyd, S. 2017. Chronological creationism. Foundations 72:76-99.
Long, J.A. 2010. The Rise of Fishes: 500 Million Years of Evolution. Second edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
Lordkipanidze, D., Jashashvili, T., Vekua, A., Ponce de León, M.S., Zollikofer, C.P.E., Rightmire, G.P., Pontzer, H., Ferring, R., Oms, O., Tappen, M., Bukhsianidze, M., Agusti, J., Kahlke, R., Kiladze, G., Martinez-Navarro, B., Mouskhelishvili, A., Nioradze, M. and Rook, L. 2007. Postcranial evidence from early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia. Nature 449:305-310.
Lordkipanidze, D., Ponce de León, M.S., Margvelashvili, A., Rak, Y., Rightmire, G.P., Vekua, A. and Zollikofer, C.P.E. 2013. A complete skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the evolutionary biology of early Homo. Science 342:326-331.
Lordkipanidze, D., Vekua, A., Ferring, R., Rightmire, G.P., Zollikofer, C.P.E., Ponce de Léon, M.S., Agusti, J., Kiladze, G., Mouskhelishvili, A., Nioradze, M. and Tappen, M. 2006. A fourth hominin skull from Dmanisi, Georgia. Anatomical Record A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 288A:1146-1157.
Lovett, T. 2007. Thinking outside the box. Answers 2(2):24-30.
Lü, J. and Brusatte, S.L. 2015. A large, short-armed, winged dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of China and its implications for feather evolution. Scientific Reports 5:11775.
Lyell, C. and Dawson, J.W. 1853. On the remains of a reptile (Dendrerpeton acadianum, Wyman and Owen) and of a land shell discovered in the interior of an erect fossil tree in the coal measures of Nova Scotia. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 9:58-63.
MacFadden, B.J. 1994. Fossil Horses: Systematics, Paleobiology, and Evolution of the Family Equidae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Maisey, J.G. 1996. Discovering Fossil Fishes. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Marsh, F.L. 1941. Fundamental Biology. Self-published, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Marsh, O.C. 1891. A horned artiodactyle (Protoceras celer) from the Miocene. American Journal of Science (series 3) 41(241):81-82.
Martill, D.M. 1989. The Medusa effect: instantaneous fossilization. Geology Today 5:201-205.
Martin L.D. and Black, C.C. 1972. A new owl from the Eocene of Wyoming. Auk 89:887-888.
Martínez, R.N., Sereno, P.C., Alcober, O.A., Colombi, C.E., Renne, P.R., Montañez, I.P. and Currie, B.S. 2011. A basal dinosaur from the dawn of the dinosaur era in southwestern Pangaea. Science 331:206-210.
Martínez, R.N., Fernandez, E. and Alcober, O. 2013. A new non-mammaliaform eucynodont from the Carnian-Norian Ischigualasto Formation, northwestern Argentina. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia 16:61-76.
Matthew, W.D., Granger, W. and Simpson, G.G. 1929. Additions to the fauna of the Gashato Formation of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates 376:1-12.
Matthews, M. 2014. Field trip: seeing the Field Museum with new eyes. Answers 9(1):84-89.
Matthews, S.C. and Missarzhevsky, V.V. 1975. Small shelly fossils of late Precambrian and early Cambrian age: a review of recent work. Journal of the Geological Society of London 131:289-304.
McKee, E.D. and Bigarella, J.J., 1979. Ancient sandstones considered to be eolian. pp.187-238 in: McKee, E.D. (editor). A study of global sand seas. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1052.
McLain, M. 2017a. Reply to O’Micks concerning the geology and taphonomy of the Homo naledi site. Answers Research Journal 10:55-56.
McLain, M.A. 2017b. Baraminology of non-cynodont therapsids I: “basal” therapsids, biarmosuchians, and dinocephalians. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 7:4.
McLain, M.A. 2017c. Baraminology of non-cynodont therapsids II: anomodonts, gorgonopsians, and therocephalians. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 7:4-5.
McLain, M.A. 2020. Feathered dinosaurs and the creation model. e-Origins 2:2-8.
McLain, M.A., Chadwick, A.V., Brand, L.R. and Nelsen, D. 2014. Solving taphonomic jigsaw puzzles: insight into the complex depositional history of a Lance Formation (Maastrichtian) dinosaur bonebed. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 46(6):330.
McLain, M.A., Petrone, M. and Speights, M. 2018. Feathered dinosaurs reconsidered: new insights from baraminology and ethnotaxonomy. pp.472–515 in: Whitmore, J.H. (editor). Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Menton, D.N., Habermehl, A. and DeWitt, D.A. 2010. Baraminological analysis places Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, and Australopithecus sediba in the human holobaramin: discussion. Answers Research Journal 3:153-158.
Meyer, H. 2003. The Fossils of Florissant. Smithsonian Books, Washington D.C.
Millard, A. 1997. Discoveries from Bible Times: Archaeological Treasures Throw Light on the Bible. Lion Publishing, Oxford.
Milsom, C. and Rigby, S. 2009. Fossils at a Glance. Second edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
Misra, S.B. 2010. Origin and growth of the Ediacaran fauna at Mistaken Point, Newfoundland, Canada: a hypothesis. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 55:177-182.
Missiaen, P., Gunnell, G.F. and Gingerich, P.D. 2011. New Brontotheriidae (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from the Early and Middle Eocene of Pakistan with implications for mammalian paleobiogeography. Journal of Paleontology 85:665-677.
Monks, N. 2008a. Hooks, paperclips and balls of string. Understanding heteromorphy ammonites. Deposits (13):24-27.
Monks, N. 2008b. Belemnites. Deposits (16):24-27.
Monks, N. 2009. The geologist’s tool kit. Deposits (17):25-27.
Monks, N. 2010. The monster nautiluses of the Palaeozoic. Deposits (22):22-25.
Monks, N. 2013. Interpreting ammonite fossils. Deposits (36):26-30.
Monks, N. 2014. On the trail of giant brachiopods. Deposits (38):12-15.
Monks, N. 2015. Fossil crustaceans. Deposits (44):46-49.
Montgomery, W.I., Provan, J., McCabe, A.M. and Yalden, D.W. 2014. Origin of British and Irish mammals: disparate post-glacial colonisation and species introductions. Quaternary Science Reviews 98:144-165.
Moody, R. 1979. Fossils (Hamlyn Nature Guide). Hamlyn, London.
Mortenson, T. 2015. Explaining a young Earth in five easy steps. Answers 10(1):87-89.
Morton, G.R. 1984. Global, continental and regional sedimentation systems and their implications. Creation Research Society Quarterly 21:23-33.
Motani, R., Jiang, D.-Y., Tintori, A., Sun, Y.-L., Hao, W.-C., Boyd, A., Hinic-Frlog, S., Schmitz, L., Shin, J.-Y. and Sun, Z.-Y. 2008. Horizons and assemblages of Middle Triassic marine reptiles from Panxian, Guizhou, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28:900-903.
Moy-Thomas, J.A. and Miles, R.S. 1971. Palaeozoic Fishes. Second edition. Chapman and Hall, London.
Natural History Museum. 1975a. British Palaeozoic Fossils. Fourth edition. Natural History Museum, London.
Natural History Museum. 1975b. British Caenozoic Fossils. Fifth edition. Natural History Museum, London.
Natural History Museum. 1983. British Mesozoic Fossils. Sixth edition. Natural History Museum, London.
Nield, E.W. and Tucker, V.C.T. 1985. Palaeontology: An Introduction. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Niessen, R. 1982. A biblical approach to dating the earth: a case for the use of Genesis 5 and 11 as an exact chronology. Creation Research Society Quarterly 19:60-66.
Norman, D. 1994. Prehistoric Life: The Rise of the Vertebrates. Macmillan, New York.
O’Micks, J. 2016a. Preliminary baraminological analysis of Homo naledi and its place within the human baramin. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 6:31-39.
O’Micks, J. 2016b. Homo naledi probably not part of the human holobaramin based on baraminic re-analysis including postcranial evidence. Answers Research Journal 9:263-272.
O’Micks, J. 2016c. Reply to “Taxon sample in hominin baraminology: a response to O’Micks”. Answers Research Journal 9:373-375.
O’Micks, J. 2017a. Rebuttal to “Reply to O’Micks concerning the geology and taphonomy of the Homo naledi site” and “Identifying humans in the fossil record: a further response to O’Micks”. Answers Research Journal 10:63-70.
O’Micks, J. 2017b. Further evidence that Homo naledi is not a member of the human holobaramin based on measurements of vertebrae and ribs. Answers Research Journal 10:103-113.
O’Micks, J. 2017c. Likely discontinuity between humans and non-human hominins based on endocranial volume and body mass with a special focus on Homo naledi – a short analysis. Answers Research Journal 10:241-243.
Oard, M.J. 1990a. An Ice Age Caused by the Genesis Flood. Institute for Creation Research, El Cajon, California.
Oard, M.J. 1990b. A post-Flood ice age model can account for Quaternary features. Origins [GRI] 17(1):8-26.
Oard, M.J. 1990c. The evidence for only one ice age. pp.191-200 in: Walsh, R.E. and Brooks, C.L. (editors). Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Creationism Volume II: Technical Symnposium Sessions and Additional Topics. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Oard, M.J. 2000. The extinction of the woolly mammoth: was it a quick freeze? Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 14:24-34.
Oard, M. 2004. Frozen in Time: The Woolly Mammoth, the Ice Age and the Bible. Master Books, Green Forest, Arkansas.
Oard, M.J. 2008. How did 90% of large Australian ice age animals go extinct? Journal of Creation 22:17-19.
Oard, M.J. 2013. Geology indicates the terrestrial Flood/post-Flood boundary is mostly in the Late Cenozoic. Journal of Creation 27(1):119-127.
Owen, R. 1862. Description of specimens of fossil reptilians discovered in the Coal Measures of the South Joggins, Nova Scotia. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 18:238-244.
Padian, K. and Faux, M. 2007. The opisthotonic posture of vertebrate skeletons: post-mortem contraction or death throes? Paleobiology 33:201-226.
Palmer, D. 2009. Evolution: The Story of Life. Mitchell Beazley, London.
Palmer, D. and Rickards, B. 2001. Graptolites: Writing in the Rocks. Boydell Press, Woodbridge.
Penney, D. 2015. Fossil insects: 400myrs of ecological dominance. Deposits (41):12-15.
Pérez-Ramos, O. and Nestell, M. 2002. Permian fusulinids from Cobachi, central Sonora, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 19:25-37.
Peters, S.E. and Gaines, R.R. 2012. Formation of the ‘Great Unconformity’ as a trigger for the Cambrian explosion. Nature 484:363-366.
Prothero, D.R. 2006. After the Dinosaurs: The Age of Mammals. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana.
Pu, H., Kobayashi, Y., Lü, J., Xu, L., Wu, Y., Chang, H., Zhang, J. and Jia, S. 2013. An unusual basal therizinosaur dinosaur with an ornithischian dental arrangement from northeastern China. PLoS ONE 8(5):e63423.
Purdom, G. and Snelling, A.A. 2013. Survey of microbial composition and mechanisms of living stromatolites of the Bahamas and Australia: developing criteria to determine the biogenicity of fossil stromatolites. n.p. in: Horstemeyer, M. (editor). Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Ritland, R.M. 1981. Historical development of the current understanding of the geologic column: Part I. Origins [GRI] 8(2):59-76.
Ritland, R.M. 1982. Historical development of the current understanding of the geologic column: Part II. Origins [GRI] 9(1):28-50.
Robinson, D.A. and Cavanaugh, D.P. 1998. Evidence for a holobaraminic origin of the cats. Creation Research Society Quarterly 35:2-14.
Robinson, S.J. 1995. From the Flood to Exodus: Egypt’s earliest settlers. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 9:45-68.
Romer, A.S. 1966. Vertebrate Palaeontology. Third Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Ross, M. 2010. Those not-so-dry bones. Answers 5(1):43-45.
Ross, M.R. 2012. Evaluating potential post-Flood boundaries with biostratigraphy – the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Journal of Creation 26(2):82-87.
Ross, M. 2013a. Recounting the animals on the ark – no kind left behind. Answers 8(1):26-29.
Ross, M. 2013b. Why were the animals so big? Answers 8(2):56-59.
Ross, M.R. 2014a. Fossil baramins on Noah’s ark: the “amphibians”. Answers Research Journal 7:331-355.
Ross, M.R. 2014b. A preliminary biostratigraphic analysis of the K-Pg boundary as a post-Flood boundary candidate. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series C: Earth Sciences 4:1.
Ross, M., Whitmore, J., Gollmer, S. and Faulkner, D. 2015. The Heavens & the Earth: Excursions in Earth and Space Science. Second edition. Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa.
Roth, A.A.. 1985. Are millions of years required to produce biogenic sediments in the deep ocean? Origins [GRI] 12(1):48-56.
Roth, A.A. 1986. Some questions about geochronology. Origins [GRI] 13(2):64-85.
Rudwick, M.J.S. 1970. Living and Fossil Brachiopods. Hutchinson, London.
Rudwick, M.J.S. 1972. The Meaning of Fossils: Episodes in the History of Palaeontology. Macdonald, London.
Sanders, R.W. 2013. The fossil record of angiosperm families in relation to baraminology. n.p. in: Horstemeyer, M. (editor). Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Sanders, R.W. and Austin, S.A. 2018. Paleobotany supports the floating mat model for the origin of Carboniferous coal beds. pp.525-552 in: Whitmore, J.H. (editor). Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Sanders, R.W. and Wise, K.P. 2003. The cognitum: a perception-dependent concept needed in baraminology. pp.445-456 in: Ivey, R.L., Jr. (editor). Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Sarfati, J. 2003. Biblical chronogenealogies. TJ 17(3):14-18.
Scheven, J. 1981. Floating forests on firm grounds. Advances in Carboniferous research. Biblical Creation 3(9):36-43.
Scheven, J. 1984. The interpretation of fossils and the principle of actualism. pp.5-19 in: Tyler, D.J. (editor). Understanding Fossils and Earth History. Biblical Creation Special Issue 18.
Scheven, J. 1990a. The geological record of biblical earth history. Origins [BCS] 3(8):8-13.
Scheven, J. 1990b. Stasis in the fossil record as confirmation of a belief in biblical creation. pp.197-215 in: Walsh, R.E. and Brooks, C.L. (editors). Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Creationism Volume I: General Sessions. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Scheven, J. 1990c. The Flood/post-Flood boundary in the fossil record. pp.247-266 in: Walsh, R.E. and Brooks, C.L. (editors). Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Creationism Volume II: Technical Symposium Sessions and Additional Topics. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Schoch, R.R. 2014. Amphibian Evolution: The Life of Early Land Vertebrates. Wiley Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey.
Schweitzer M.H., Suo, Z., Avci, R., Asara, J.M., Allen, M.A., Arce, F.T. and Horner, J.R. 2007. Analyses of soft tissue from Tyrannosaurus rex suggest the presence of protein. Science 316:277-280.
Schweitzer M.H., Wittmeyer, J.L., Horner, J.R. and Toporski, J.K. 2005. Soft-tissue vessels and cellular preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex. Science 307:1952-1955.
Schweitzer M.H., Zheng, W., Organ, C.L., Avci, R., Suo, Z., Freimark, L.M., Lebleu, V.S., Duncan, M.B., Vander Heiden, M.G., Neveu, J.M., Lane, W.S., Cottrell, J.S., Horner, J.R., Cantley, L.C., Kalluri, R. and Asara, J.M. 2009. Biomolecular characterization and protein sequences of the Campanian hadrosaur B. canadensis. Science 324:626-631.
Seilacher, A. 2007. Trace Fossil Analysis. Springer, Berlin.
Semikhatov, M.A. 2008. The Upper Precambrian. pp.15-27 in: State of Level of Scrutiny of Precambrian and Phanerozoic Stratigraphy of Russia: The Goals of Further Studies. Decisions of the Interdepartmental Stratigraphical Committee and its Commissions 38. VSEGEI, St Petersburg. (in Russian)
Sepkoski, J.J., Jr. 1981. A factor analytic description of the Phanerozoic marine fossil record. Paleobiology 7:36-53.
Sepkoski, J.J., Jr. 1990. Evolutionary faunas. pp.37-41 in: Briggs, D.E.G. and Crowther, P.R. (editors). Palaeobiology: A Synthesis. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Sexton, J. and Smith, H.B., Jr. 2016. Primeval chronology restored: revisiting the genealogies of Genesis 5 and 11. Bible and Spade 29:42-49.
Sheppard, P.S. 2009. Building a community for discovery. Answers 4(1):76-81.
Sherburn, J.E., Horstemeyer, M.F. and Solanki, K. 2008. Simulation analysis of glacial surging in the Des Moines Ice Lobe. pp.263-273 in: Snelling, A.A. (editor). Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Institute for Creation Research, Dallas, Texas.
Shimmin, J. and Day, S. 2008. Arthropleura – a prehistoric bug hunt. Deposits (13):40-42.
Shu, D.-G., Luo, H.-L., Conway Morris, S., Zhang, X.-L., Hu, S.-X., Chen, L., Han, J., Zhu, M., Li, Y. and Chen, L.-Z. 1999. Lower Cambrian vertebrates from south China. Nature 402:42-46.
Sigler, R. and Wingerden, V. 1998. Submarine flow and slide deposits in the Kingston Peak Formation, Kingston Range, Mojave Desert, California: evidence for catastrophic initiation of Noah’s Flood. pp.487-501 in: Walsh, R.E. (editor). Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Simons, E.L. 1967. The earliest apes. Scientific American 217(12):28-35.
Smith, A.B. 1984. Echinoid Palaeobiology. Harper Collins, London.
Smith, E.N. 1979. Marine life and the Flood. Creation Research Society Quarterly 15:179-183.
Smith, H.B., Jr. 2017. Methuselah’s begetting age in Genesis 5:25 and the primeval chronology of the Septuagint: a closer look at the textual and historical evidence. Answers Research Journal 10:169-179.
Smith, H.B., Jr. 2018a. The case for the Septuagint’s chronology in Genesis 5 and 11. pp.117-132 in: Whitmore, J.H. (editor). Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh.
Smith, H.B., Jr. 2018b. New evidence for Kainan in New Testament and LXX papyri. Bible and Spade 31:70-77.
Smith, R.M.H. and Evans, S.E. 1995. An aggregation of juvenile Youngina from the Beaufort Group, Karoo Basin, South Africa. Palaeontographica Africana 32:45-49.
Snelling, A.A. 2007a. A catastrophic breakup: a scientific look at catastrophic plate tectonics. Answers 2(2):44-48.
Snelling, A.A. 2007b. Geologic evidences for the Genesis Flood: an overview. Answers 2(4):81-83.
Snelling, A.A. 2008a. Flood evidence number one: high & dry sea creatures. Answers 3(1):92-95.
Snelling, A.A. 2008b. Flood evidence number two: the world’s a graveyard. Answers 3(2):76-79.
Snelling, A.A. 2008c. Flood evidence number three: transcontinental rock layers. Answers 3(3):80-83.
Snelling, A.A. 2008d. Flood evidence number four: sand transported cross country. Answers 3(4):96-99.
Snelling, A.A. 2009a. Flood evidence number five: no slow and gradual erosion. Answers 4(1):96-99.
Snelling, A.A. 2009b. Flood evidence number six: rock layers folded not fractured. Answers 4(2):80-83.
Snelling. 2009c. Earth’s Catastrophic Past: Geology, Creation and the Flood: 2 volumes. Institute for Creation Research, Dallas, Texas.
Snelling, A.A. 2009d. Radiometric dating: back to basics. Answers 4(3):72-75.
Snelling, A.A. 2009e. Radiometric dating: problems with the assumptions. Answers 4(4):70-73.
Snelling, A.A. 2010a. Radiometric dating: making sense of the patterns. Answers 5(1):72-75.
Snelling, A.A. 2010b. Order in the fossil record. Answers 5(1):64-68.
Snelling, A.A. 2010c. Carbon-14 dating: understanding the basics. Answers 5(4):72-75.
Snelling, A.A. 2011a. Carbon-14 in fossils and diamonds: an evolution dilemma. Answers 6(1):72-75.
Snelling, A.A. 2011b. 50,000-year-old fossils: a creationist puzzle. Answers 6(2):70-73.
Snelling, A.A. 2011c. Cincinnati – built on a fossil graveyard. Answers 6(3):50-53.
Snelling, A.A. 2013. How did we get all this coal? Answers 8(2):70-73.
Snelling, A.A. 2014a. Noah’s lost world. Answers 9(2):80-85.
Snelling, A.A. 2014b. Allosaurus – a creationist’s best friend. Answers 9(4):56-63.
Snelling, A.A. 2015. Sifting through layers of meaning. Answers 10(4):30-36.
Snelling, A.A. 2016. Plate tectonics – the reality behind a theory. Answers 11(1):52-55.
Snelling, A.A., Ernst, M., Scheven, E., Scheven, J., Austin, S.A., Wise, K.P., Garner, P., Garton, M. and Tyler, D. 1996. The geological record. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 10(3):333-334.
Snelling, A. and Matthews, M. 2012. When did cavemen live? Answers 7(2):50-55.
Snelling, A. and Matthews, M. 2013. When was the ice age in biblical history? Answers 8(2):46-52.
Snyder, K., McLain, M., Wood, J. and Chadwick, A. 2020. Over 13,000 elements from a single bonebed help elucidate disarticulation and transport of an Edmontosaurus thanatocoenosis. PLoS ONE 15(5): e0233182.
Solounias, N., Barry, J.C., Bernor, R.L., Lindsay, E.H. and Raza, S.M. 1995. The oldest bovid from the Siwaliks, Pakistan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15:806-814.
Spencer L., Turner L.E. and Chadwick A.V. 2001. A remarkable vertebrate assemblage from the Lance Formation, Niobrara County, Wyoming. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 33:A499.
Sprigg, R.C. 1947. Early Cambrian (?) jellyfishes from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 71:212-24.
Stambaugh, J. 1991a. The days of creation: a semantic approach. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 5(1):70-78.
Stambaugh, J. 1991b. Creation’s original diet and the changes at the fall. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 5(2):130-138.
Steen, M.C. 1933. The amphibian fauna from the South Joggins, Nova Scotia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 104:465-504.
Stinchcomb, B.L. 2013. Paleozoic Fossil Plants. Schiffer Publishing, Atglen, Pennsylvania.
Storch, G. and Lister, A.M. 1985. Leptictidium nasutum, ein Pseudorhynchocyonide aus dem Eozän der ‘Grube Messel’ bei Darmstadt (Mammalia, Proteutheria). Senckenbergiana Lethaea 66:1-37.
Stringer, C. 2006. Homo Britannicus: The Incredible Story of Human Life in Britain. Allen Lane, London.
Stringer, C. and Andrews, P. 2011. The Complete World of Human Evolution. Second edition. Thames and Hudson, London.
Stringer, C. and Gamble, C. 1994. In Search of the Neanderthals. Thames and Hudson, London.
Talavera, A. and McLain, M. 2017. Applying baraminological methods to understand mammal-like cynodonts. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 7:7-8.
Talavera, A. and McLain, M.A. 2018. Applying baraminological methods to understand “basal” mammaliaforms. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 8:4.
Taylor, P.D. and Lewis, D.N. 2005. Fossil Invertebrates. Natural History Museum, London.
Taylor, T.N., Taylor, E.L. and Krings, M. 2009. Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Second edition. Academic Press, Amsterdam.
Thewissen, J.G.M. 1990. Evolution of Paleocene and Eocene Phenacodontidae. University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology 29:1-107.
Thewissen, J.G.M., Cooper, L.N., Clementz, M.T., Bajpai, S. and Tiwari, B.N. 2007. Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of India. Nature 450:1190-1194.
Thomas, B. 2013. A review of original tissue fossils and their age implications. n.p. in: Horstemeyer, M. (editor). Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Thomas, B. 2015. Original biomaterials in fossils. Creation Research Society Quarterly 51:234-247.
Thompson, C. and Wood, T.C. 2018. A survey of Cenozoic mammal baramins. pp.217-221, A1-A83 (appendix) in: Whitmore, J.H. (editor). Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Tomkins, J.P., Daniels, D.W. and Johnson, J.J.S. 2019. Extensive Messianic prophecy corruptions and Flood-related chronology errors disqualify the Septuagint (LXX) as a reliable source for creationist research. Creation Research Society Quarterly 56:40-47.
Torney, C. 2015. Looking through a crystal ball: unravelling the wonders of trilobite eyes. Deposits (41):38-42.
Tosk, T. 1988. Foraminifers in the fossil record: implications for an ecological zonation model. Origins [GRI] 15(1):8-18.
Turner, A. 1997. The Big Cats and their Fossil Relatives. Columbia University Press, New York.
Turner, A.H., Makovicky, P.J. and Norell, M.A. 2007a. Feather quill knobs in the dinosaur Velociraptor. Science 317:1721.
Turner, A.H., Pol, D., Clarke, J.A., Erickson, G.M. and Norell, M. 2007b. A basal dromaeosaurid and size evolution preceding avian flight. Science 317:1378-1381.
Tyler, D.J. and Coffin, H.G. 2006. Accept the column, reject the chronology. pp.53-69 in: Reed, J.K. and Oard, M.J. (editors). The Geologic Column: Perspectives Within Diluvial Geology. Creation Research Society, Chino Valley, Arizona.
Upchurch, J. 2010. Mapping out the truth. Answers 5(1):56-59.
Valentine, J.W. 1989. How good was the fossil record? Clues from the California Pleistocene. Paleobiology 15:83-94.
Vardiman, L. 1994. A conceptual transition model of the atmospheric global circulation following the Genesis Flood. pp.569-579 in: Walsh, R.E. (editor). Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Vardiman, L. 1996. Cooling of the ocean after the Flood. ICR Impact 277:i-iv.
Vardiman, L. 1998. Numerical simulation of precipitation induced by hot mid-ocean ridges. pp.595-605 in: Walsh, R.E. (editor). Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Vardiman, L. 2001. Climates Before and After the Genesis Flood: Numerical Models and their Implications. Institute for Creation Research, San Diego, California.
Vardiman, L. 2003. Hypercanes following the Genesis Flood. pp.17-28 in: Ivey, R.L., Jr. (editor). Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Vardiman, L. 2008. A proposed mesoscale simulation of precipitation in Yosemite National Park with a warm ocean. pp.307-319 in: Snelling, A.A. (editor). Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Institute for Creation Research, Dallas, Texas.
Vardiman, L. 2008b. A dark and stormy world. Answers 3(4):78-80.
Vardiman, L. 2010. Numerical simulation of precipitation in Yosemite National Park with a warm ocean: a Pineapple Express case study. Answers Research Journal 3:23-36.
Vardiman, L. 2011. A well-watered land: numerical simulations of a hypercyclone in the Middle East. Answers Research Journal 4:55-74.
Vardiman, L. 2013. What started the ice age? Answers 8(2):53-55.
Vardiman, L. and Brewer, W. 2010a. Numerical simulation of precipitation in Yosemite National Park with a warm ocean: Deep Upper Low and Rex Blocking Pattern case studies. Answers Research Journal 3:119-145.
Vardiman, L. and Brewer, W. 2010b. Numerical simulation of precipitation in Yellowstone National Park with a warm ocean: Continuous Zonal Flow, Gulf of Alaska Low, and Plunging Western Low case studies. Answers Research Journal 3:209-266.
Vardiman, L. and Brewer, W. 2012a. Numerical simulations of Hypercanes Charley and Fay in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico over a warm ocean. Answers Research Journal 5:13-24.
Vardiman, L. and Brewer, W. 2012b. Numerical simulations of three nor’easters with a warm Atlantic Ocean. Answers Research Journal 5:39-58.
Vardiman, L., Snelling, A.A. and Chaffin, E.F. (editors). 2000. Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth: A Young-Earth Creationist Research Initiative. Institute for Creation Research, El Cajon, California and Creation Research Society, St Joseph, Missouri.
Vardiman, L., Snelling, A.A. and Chaffin, E.F. (editors). 2005. Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth: Results of a Young-Earth Creationist Research Initiative. Institute for Creation Research, El Cajon, California and Creation Research Society, Chino Valley, Arizona.
Vartanyan, S.L., Garutt, V.E. and Sher, A.V. 1993. Holocene dwarf mammoths from Wrangel Island in the Siberian Arctic. Nature 362:337-349.
Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Rightmire, G.P., Agusti, J., Ferring, R., Maisuradze, G., Mouskhelishvili, A., Nioradze, N., Ponce de Leon, M., Tappen, M., Tvalchrelidze, M. and Zollikofer, C. 2002. A new skull of early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia. Science 297:85-89.
Walker, T. 2010. Geologic catastrophe and the young earth. Creation 32(2):28-31.
Wallace, D.R. 1999. The Bonehunters’ Revenge: Dinosaurs, Greed, and the Greatest Scientific Feud of the Gilded Age. Houghton Mifflin Books, Boston, Massachusetts.
Wang B.-Y. and P.-Y. Wang. 1991. Discovery of early medial Oligocene mammalian fauna from Kekeamu, Alxa Left Banner, Nei Mongol. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 29:64-71.
Wang X. 1994. Phylogenetic systematics of the Hesperocyoninae (Carnivora, Canidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 221:1-207.
Waring, D. 2008. “Pop” cultures of antiquity. Answers 3(2):34-35.
Weeks, S.R. and Chadwick, A.V. 2011. A prominent seismite in the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation in northeastern Wyoming as a stratigraphic marker. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 43(5):280.
Weeks, S.R., Chadwick, A.V. and Brand, L.R. 2015. Large dinosaur bonebed deposited as debris flow: Lance Formation Niobrara County, Wyoming. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 47(7):566.
Weishampel, D.B., Dodson, P. and Osmólska, H. (editors). 2004. The Dinosauria. Second edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
Weninger, B., Schulting, R., Bradtmöller, M., Clare, L., Collard, M., Edinborough, K., Hilpert, J., Jöris, O., Niekus, M., Rohling, E.J. and Wagner, B. 2008. The catastrophic final flooding of Doggerland by the Storegga Slide tsunami. Documenta Praehistorica 35:1-24.
Wetmore, A. 1926. Descriptions of additional fossil birds from the Miocene of Nebraska. American Museum Novitates 211:1-5.
Whitcomb, J.C. 2007. Universality of the Genesis Flood. Answers 2(2):40-42.
Whitmore, J.H. 2006a. The Green River Formation: a large post-Flood lake system. Journal of Creation 20(1):55-63.
Whitmore, J. 2006b. Exploding fish: evidence for rapid burial. Answers 1(2):27-31.
Whitmore, J. 2007. Should fragile shells be common in the fossil record? Answers 2(2):78-81.
Whitmore, J. 2008. Continuing catastrophes. Answers 3(4):70-72.
Whitmore, J.H. 2009a. Modern and ancient reefs. pp.149-166 in: Oard, M. and Reed, J.K. (editors). Rock Solid Answers: The Biblical Truth Behind 14 Geological Questions. Master Books, Green Forest, Arkansas.
Whitmore, J.H. 2009b. Fossil preservation. pp.231-244 in: Oard, M. and Reed, J.K. (editors). Rock Solid Answers: The Biblical Truth Behind 14 Geological Questions. Master Books, Green Forest, Arkansas.
Whitmore, J. 2013. The potential for and implications of widespread post-Flood erosion and mass wasting processes. n.p. in: Horstemeyer, M. (editor). Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Whitmore, J.H. 2015. Coconino Sandstone – the most powerful argument against the Flood? Answers 10(3):30-35.
Whitmore, J.H. 2019a. Lithostratigraphic correlation of the Coconino Sandstone and a global survey of Permian “eolian” sandstones: implications for Flood geology. Answers Research Journal 12:275-328.
Whitmore, J.H. 2019b. Mica, mica in the sand, tell us something really grand! Answers 14(5):26-29.
Whitmore, J.H., Forsythe, G. and Garner, P.A. 2015. Intraformational parabolic recumbent folds in the Coconino Sandstone (Permian) and two other formations in Sedona, Arizona (USA). Answers Research Journal 8:21-40.
Whitmore, J.H. and Garner, P. 2008. Using suites of criteria to recognize pre-Flood, Flood, and post-Flood strata in the rock record with application to Wyoming (USA). pp.425-448 in: Snelling, A.A. (editor). Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Institute for Creation Research, Dallas, Texas.
Whitmore, J.H. and Garner, P.A. 2018. The Coconino Sandstone (Permian, Arizona, USA): implications for the origin of ancient cross-bedded sandstones. pp.581-627 in: Whitmore, J.H. (editor). Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh.
Whitmore, J.H., Strom, R., Cheung, S. and Garner, P.A. 2014. The petrology of the Coconino Sandstone (Permian), Arizona, USA. Answers Research Journal 7:499-532.
Whitmore, J.H. and Wise, K.P. 2008. Rapid and early post-Flood mammalian diversification evidenced in the Green River Formation. pp.449-457 in: Snelling, A.A. (editor). Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Institute for Creation Research, Dallas, Texas.
Wieland, C. 1995. Forests that grew on water. Startling facts from coal uproot the ‘millions of years’ idea. Creation 18(1):20-24.
Wieland, C. 2008. Bugs, baramins and beauty. Creation 30(3):42-44.
Wild, R. 1990. Holzmaden. pp.282-285 in: Briggs, D.E.G. and Crowther, P.R. (editors). Palaeobiology: A Synthesis. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Willis, K. and McElwain, J. 2013. The Evolution of Plants. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Wingerden, C.V. 2003. Initial Flood deposits of the western North American cordillera: California, Utah and Idaho. pp.349-358 in: Ivey, R.L., Jr. (editor). Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Wise, K.P. n.d. First appearances of higher taxa: a preliminary study of order in the fossil record. Unpublished manuscript.
Wise, K.P. 1989. Punc eq creation style. Origins [GRI] 16(1):11-24.
Wise, K.P. 1990. Baraminology: a young-earth creation biosystematic method. pp.345-360 in: Walsh, R.E. and Brooks, C.L. (editors). Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Creationism, Vol. II: Technical Symposium Sessions and Additional Topics. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Wise, K.P. 1991. The fossil record: the ultimate test case for young-earth creationism. Opus: A Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies 1991-1992:17-29.
Wise, K.P. 1992a. Practical baraminology. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 6(2):122-137.
Wise, K.P. 1992b. Were there really no seasons?: tree rings and climate. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 6(2):168-172.
Wise, K.P. 1994. Australopithecus ramidus and the fossil record. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 8:160-165.
Wise, KP. 1995. Towards a creationist understanding of ‘transitional forms’. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 9:216-222.
Wise, K.P. 2002. Faith, Form, and Time: What the Bible Teaches and Science Confirms about Creation and the Age of the Universe. Broadman and Holman, Nashville, Tennessee.
Wise, K.P. 2003a. The hydrothermal biome: a pre-Flood environment. pp.359-370 in: Ivey, R. L., Jr. (editor). Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Wise, K.P. 2003b. The pre-Flood floating forest: a study in paleontological pattern recognition. pp.371-381 in: Ivey, R.L., Jr. (editor). Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Wise, K.P. 2005. The Flores skeleton and human baraminology. Occasional Papers of the BSG 6:1-13.
Wise, K. 2008a. Lucy was buried first: Babel helps explain the sequence of ape and human fossils. Answers 3(2):66-68.
Wise, K.P. 2008b. Mystifying mosaics. Answers 3(3):56-59.
Wise, K.P. 2008c. Sinking a floating forest. Answers 3(4):40-43.
Wise, K. 2010a. Life’s unexpected explosion. Answers 5(1):40-42.
Wise, K. 2010b. Tracks but no trilobites. Answers 5(1):48.
Wise, K. 2010c. Completeness of the fossil record. Answers 5(1):69-71.
Wise, K.P. 2011. A closer look at Noah’s world: same time, different place. Answers 6(4):56-63.
Wise, K. 2012. Trilobite eyes – ultimate optics. Answers 7(4):26-27.
Wise, K.P. 2014. Species as brushstrokes: the revelatory species concept in creationism. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 4:28-29.
Wise, K.P. 2016. Paleontological note on Homo naledi. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 6:9-13.
Wise, K.P. 2018. Fossil Grove and other Paleozoic forests as allochthonous Flood deposits. Answers Research Journal 11:237-256.
Wise, K. and Allison, G. 2008. Loving science, loving God. Answers 3(4):90-92.
Wise, K.P. and Croxton, M. 2003. Rafting: a post-Flood biogeographic dispersal mechanism. pp.465-477 in: Ivey, R.L., Jr. (editor). Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Wise, K.P. and Richardson, S.A. 2004. Something from Nothing: Understanding What you Believe about Creation and Why. Broadman and Holman Publishers, Nashville, Tennessee, p.132.
Wise, K.P. and Snelling, A.A. 2005. A note on the pre-Flood/Flood boundary in the Grand Canyon. Origins [GRI] 58:7-29.
Witton, M. 2013. Pterosaurs. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Wood, S.P. 1982. New basal Namurian (Upper Carboniferous) fishes and crustaceans found near Glasgow. Nature 297:574-577.
Wood, T.C. 2002a. A baraminology tutorial with examples from the grasses (Poaceae). TJ 16(1):15-25.
Wood, T.C. 2002b. The AGEing process: rapid post-Flood, intrabaraminic diversiﬁcation caused by Altruistic Genetic Elements (AGEs). Origins [GRI] 54:5-34.
Wood, T.C. 2003a. Mediated design. ICR Impact 363:i-iv.
Wood, T.C. 2003b. Perspectives on AGEing: a young-earth creation diversification model. pp.479-489 in: Ivey, R.L., Jr. (editor). Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Wood, T.C. 2005. Visualizing baraminic distances using classical multidimensional scaling. Origins [GRI] 57:9-29.
Wood, T.C. 2006a. Introduction. Occasional Papers of the BSG (8):3-4.
Wood, T.C. 2006b. The current status of baraminology. Creation Research Society Quarterly 43:149-158.
Wood, T.C. 2008a. Bara – what? Answers 3(4):33-35.
Wood, T.C. 2008b. Horse fossils and the nature of science. Answers 3(4):74-77.
Wood, T.C. 2010. Baraminological analysis places Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, and Australopithecus sediba in the human holobaramin. Answers Research Journal 3:71-90.
Wood, T.C. 2011a. Terrestrial mammal families and creationist perspectives on speciation. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 1:2-5.
Wood, T.C. 2011b. Baraminology, the image of God, and Australopithecus sediba. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 1:2-5.
Wood, T.C. 2013a. A review of the last decade of creation biology research on natural history, 2003-2012. n.p. in: Horstemeyer, M. (editor). Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Wood, T.C. 2013b. Australopithecus sediba, statistical baraminology, and challenges to identifying the human holobaramin. n.p. in: Horstemeyer, M. (editor). Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Wood, T.C. 2013c. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of three terrestrial mammal baramins (Equidae, Felidae, and Canidae) implies an accelerated mutation rate near the time of the Flood. n.p. in: Horstemeyer, M. (editor). Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Creationism. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Wood, T.C. 2014. Psychological considerations on the recognition of the human holobaramin. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 4:30.
Wood, T.C. 2016a. An evaluation of Homo naledi and “early” Homo from a young-age creationist perspective. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 6:14-30.
Wood, T.C. 2016b. Taxon sample size in hominin baraminology: a response to O’Micks. Answers Research Journal 9:369-372.
Wood, T.C. 2016c. Estimating the statistical significance of hominin encephalization. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 6:40-45.
Wood, T.C. 2016d. Introduction to Science. Core Academy of Science, Dayton, Tennessee.
Wood, T.C. 2016e. A list and bibliography of baraminology studies. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 6:91-101.
Wood, T.C. 2017. Identifying humans in the fossil record: a further response to O’Micks. Answers Research Journal 10:57-62.
Wood, T.C. 2018. The Quest: Exploring Creation’s Hardest Problems. Compass Classroom, Nashville, Tennessee.
Wood, T.C. and Murray, M.J. 2003. Understanding the Pattern of Life: Origins and Organization of the Species. Broadman and Holman Publishers, Nashville, Tennessee.
Wood, T.C., Ross, M. and Garner, P.A. 2011. Detecting discontinuity in the Dinosauria using baraminic distance correlation. Journal of Creation Theology and Science Series B: Life Sciences 1:26-27.
Wood, T.C., Wise, K.P. Sanders, R. and Doran, N. 2003. A reﬁned baramin concept. Occasional Papers of the BSG 3:1-14.
Woodmorappe, J. 1978. The cephalopods in the creation and the universal deluge. Creation Research Society Quarterly 15:94-112.
Woodmorappe, J. 1986. The antediluvian biosphere and its capability of supplying the entire fossil record. pp.205-218 in: Walsh, R.E., Brooks, C.L. and Crowell, R.S. (editors). Proceedings of the First International Conference on Creationism, Volume II: Technical Symposium Sessions and Additional Topics. Creation Science Fellowship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Woodmorappe, J. 1996. Noah’s Ark: A Feasibility Study. Institute for Creation Research, Santee, California.
Woodmorappe, J. 2000. The Karoo vertebrate non-problem: 800 billion fossils. Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 14(2):47-49.
Woodmorappe, J. 2006. Are soft-sediment trace fossils (ichnofossils) a time problem for the Flood? Journal of Creation 20:113-122.
Woods, J.A., Turner, L. and Chadwick A.V. 2015. Digitization of taphonomic data in a large active Upper Cretaceous dinosaur site in northeastern Wyoming. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 47(7):681.
Woodward, J. 1695. Essay toward a Natural History of the Earth. R. Wilkin, London.
Worraker, B. 2004. Missing: a source of short-period comets. TJ 18(2):121-127.
Wortman, J.L. 1898. The extinct Camelidae of North America and some associated forms. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 10(7):93-142.
Wu, F.-X., Sun, Y.-L., Hao, W.-C., Jiang, D.-Y. and Sun, Z.-Y. 2015. A new species of Saurichthys (Actinopterygii; Saurichthyiformes) from the Middle Triassic of southwestern China, with remarks on pattern of the axial skeleton of saurichthyid fishes. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie 275:249-267.
Xu, X., Norell, M.A., Kuang, X., Wang, X., Zhao, Q., Jia, C. 2004. Basal tyrannosauroids from China and evidence for protofeathers in tyrannosauroids. Nature 431:680-684.
Xu, X., Tang, Z-L. and Wang, X-L. 1999a. A therizinosauroid dinosaur with integumentary structures from China. Nature 399:350-354.
Xu, X. and Wang, X. 2003. A new maniraptoran from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 41:195-202.
Xu, X., Wang, X.-L. and Wu, X.-C. 1999b. A dromaeosaurid dinosaur with a filamentous integument from the Yixian Formation of China. Nature 401:262-266.
Xu, X., Wang, K., Zhang, K., Ma, Q., Xing, L., Sullivan, C., Hu, D., Cheng, S., Wang, S. 2012. A gigantic feathered dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of China. Nature 484:92-95.
Xu, X., Zheng, X., Sullivan, C., Wang, X., Xing, L., Wang, Y., Zhang, X., O’Connor, J.K., Zhang, F. and Pan, Y. 2015. A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran theropod with preserved evidence of membranous wings. Nature 521:70-73.
Xu, X., Zheng, X. and You, H. 2010. Exceptional dinosaur fossils show ontogenetic development of early feathers. Nature 464:1338-1341.
Xu, X., Zhou, Z., Wang, X., Kuang, X., Zhang, F. and Du, X. 2003. Four-winged dinosaurs from China. Nature 421:335-340.
Yuan, J.L., Zhu, X.J., Lin, J.P. and Zhu, M.Y. 2011. Tentative correlation of Cambrian Series 2 between South China and other continents. Bulletin of Geosciences 86:397-404.
Zelenitsky, D.K., Therrien, F., Erickson, G.M., Debuhr, C.L., Kobayashi, Y., Eberth, D.A. and Hadfield, F. 2012. Feathered non-avian dinosaurs from North America provide insight into wing origins. Science 338:510-514.
Zhuravleva, I.T. 1970. Marine faunas and lower Cambrian stratigraphy. American Journal of Science 269:417-445.